Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Approaches of OM

Approaches of OM :Within the previous fifteen years or so there has been a lot of learns about the hypothetical status of talk markers (DMS) concentrating on what they are ,what they mean and what capacities they show. Fraser (1999) keeps up that teseachers have concurred that DMS are lexical articulations that relate talk sections , however they have differ on how they are characterized and what capacities they convey. Like this view, shourup (1999) contends that there is difference on capacities on key issues in the investigation of DMS. scientists can't concur on the syntactic classification of DMS or how to delimit their class or even what kinds of significance these markers express. So as to see progressively about DMS in language it is important to allude to tow approaches of DMS :The dependence hypothesis and soundness prodded approach1/intelligence based approach:Within cognizance hypothesis it is accepted DMS assume a significant job in dis course translation by utilizing â€Å"coherence † relations between talk units. As shourup (1999,p.240) contends that the understanding of a book, as indicated by the cognizance gathering. Relies upon the distinguishing proof of lucidness relations between the units of that text . this gathering incorporates specialists who receive an intelligibility based hypothesis. The primary figures of this gathering are Schifrin (1987). Fraser (1988-1990) and redeker (1990-1991).Schifrin (1987) examines the semantic and linguistic status of DMS and their capacities . since she has a place with the soundness gathering, Schifrin states that DMS add to the cognizance of the content by building up intelligence connections between units of talk Schifrin (1987,b.9). He includes that DMS demonstrate that the translation of one proviso is dictated by the data got from the earlier condition .Schifrin recommends that DMS have an intelligence job as in they relate educational units in the current talk with instructive units in the earlier talk , this is the thing that Schifrin calls nearby rationality in her structure; which implies that it is neighborhood as in DMS interface two adjoining units in the content. She expresses that DMS have both strong and auxiliary jobs ; basic since they interface (at least two) syntactic units, and furthermore firm in light of the fact that the understanding of the articulation relies upon the mix of both conjuncts. It tends to be summed up that Schifrin focuses on the etymological and auxiliary job that DMS play to accomplish talk rationality by connecting talk units The second figure of soundness based hypothesis is Fraser(1999). So also to Schifrin, Fraser keeps up that DMS add to the soundness of a book by showing intelligence connections between units of talk in any case, Fraser(1999,938) demonstrates that DMS don't need to flag any connection between section 2 and fragment 1 (adjoining portions of talk ).A talk marker can relate the fragment it presents with some other past section in talk .And this is known as ‘global intelligibility ,it is differentiated to Schifrin's nearby rationality . Fraser's (1997-1999) account centers around even minded elements of DMS ;he calls them â€Å"pragmatic markers†. Fraser characterize DMS in his proposition as they are etymological component that encode pieces of information which signal the speaker expected open aim .2/Relevance-based account:Sperber and Wilson (1986,1995) have built up the significance hypothesis. It is an even minded model that clarify how speakers decipher articulations. It dependent on subjective capacity of the listener to decipher the expression rather the semantic one. The importance hypothesis recommends that the brain's focal processor is exceptionally compelling in holding the data since it is explicitly arranged towards the quest for pertinence (as refered to in the utilization of talk markers in E.F.L students composing by ana cristina laluerta Martinez college of Oviedo). The standard of pertinence confirms that all expressions are controlled by the degree of ideal significance .in other words ,when a speaker points out a listener's the articulation . He is asserting that his expression is sufficiently important to merit the listener's consideration. To talk about profoundly the connection between pertinence hypothesis and talk markers , Blakemore ought to be available Blakemore (1987) contention is that DMS assume a critical job in the translation of expression by giving the listener/peruser with some direction in the inferential stage to arrive at the ideal importance. As per Blakemore (1987), connectives add to the understanding procedure. Normally a speaker/essayist has a particular translation of his expression and to direct the listener/peruser to arrive at the correct understanding DMS are so significant .They give the detail of specific properties of the unique circumstance and the logical impacts .The degree of ideal pertinence implies that the bigger relevant impact the littler intellectual exertion . by and large the listener stores various suspicion in his memory ,and these presumptions can cooperate with the new data passed on by the speaker , which think of three outcomes ; another supposition or the logical inconsistency , and even end , of a supposition Blakemore (1992;p.135). This the speakers/essayist can help the listener by diminishing the intellectual exertion. As Blakemore (1992;p.176) â€Å"a speaker may utilize the etymological from of his articulation to control the understanding process†. Comparable highlights of talk markers:Despite the huge contradiction about the definition and the order of talk markers ,There are some fundamental trademark and highlights shared by talk markers have been distinguished in DMS contemplates. Schourup (1999) contends, â€Å"to recognize a little sent of trademark most ordinarily ascribes to talk markers and to things alluded to by other firmly related terms†. He understands the most well-known highlights in these articulations from certain investigations in the talk markers. These highlights are â€Å"multi-categoriality, availability, mon-truth contingency, feeble condition affiliation, initiality, and optionality†a-multi-categoriality : It is seen that talk markers comprise an utilitarian classification that is heterogeneous regarding the syntactic class (as refered to in (comparative highlights). Since things that are generally remembered for DMS are not basically bound together. They are gotten from an assortment of syntactic sources. Schourup (1999,p.134) recognizes in wich DM work has been a credited whether words like: intensifiers (eg, presently really, at any rate), planning and subjecting conjunctions (e.g, and, at the same time, in light of the fact that). Additions (e.g, goodness, gosh, kid) action words (e.g, state, look, see) or it can incorporates provisions (e.g I mean, you know). The way that DMS are suffocate from various word classes makes them hard to characterize them basically. Furthermore, that implies they have indistinguishable partners that are not utilized as markers. Kohlani (2010,p39) brings up that notwithstanding the incredible question with respect to â€Å"the conjunction of two fundamentally indistinguishable things that work diversely in discourse†, they don't cover in talk :When an articulation capacities as a talk markers ,it doesn't communicate the propositional significance of, its indistinguishable partners. As refers to in janina buintkiene (2015)b-availability :network is a typical point shared by numerous investigations concerning the DMS. They concur that DMS associate articulations or other talk joins together. Be that as it may, there is an incredible contradiction about the idea of the association talk markers express and the nature and degree of the component associated ,as Schourup ( 1999,p20)point out. Therefore availability is considered diversely because of the manner in which talk is seen. In intelligence based investigations, as Schifrin (1987) and Fraser (1999) characterized DMS as connectives which relate two printed units by denoting the connections between them; they add to between articulation cognizance. For lucidness based examinations DMS have a significant job in associating one portion of text to another. In significance based examinations, DMS don't associate one fragment of text to another however they give the listener/peruser with the correct understanding of the section they present. Blakemore (1987) noticed that DMS can assume the job of associating the host expression the phonetic co-text as well as to the setting from a more extensive perspective. For inside significance hypothesis, talk markers are seen as communicating â€Å"inferential connections† that compel the â€Å"cognitive processes† hidden the translation of the fragment they present (Blakemore(2002,p.5).similar to this view, shourup (1999,p.230-232)states that DMS don't interface one portion of text to another. Or maybe they associate the â€Å"propositional content† communicated by their host sentence â€Å"to suspicions that are communicated by context†. He presumes that if network is criterial for DM status, it very well may be utilized to separate DMS from different other introductory component, for example, illocutionary adverbials (e.g, privately), attitudinal adverbials (e.g, tragically) and from essential contributions (e.g, uh oh). c/nontruth-restriction: nontruth-contingency is likewise a component that most specialists ascribe to talk markers. Saying that DMS are nontruth-restrictive implies that they carry no significance or condition to the sentence. As Schourup (1999,p.232) claims that DMS are for the most part thought to contribute nothing to reality states of the suggestion communicated by an articulation. Fraser (1996) likewise guaranteed that DMS don't impact reality states of sentences; he endorsed the possibility that fact conditions relate to mental portrayals not to sentences. As needs be ,for some, scientists talk markers are nontruth-contingent implies that DMS are a piece of the sober minded part of the sentence. Ostman (1995,p.98) contends that their â€Å"primary task in language isn't identified with the propositional part of sentences, yet to the pragm

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Empolyment low Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Empolyment low - Essay Example While she was on wiped out leave, it was claimed by the litigant that she kept on giving her conference to private patients. She was immediately excused for her gross offense for having gotten wiped out leave pay and furthermore went to private patients. Oppressed by this, she spoke to EAT guaranteeing that the no due thought was given by the NHS to any relieving components like any past clean records, employee’s long assistance or result of any excusal. For this situation, the council was of the assessment that once gross unfortunate behavior had been illustrated, excusal should consistently inside the ambit of satisfactory reactions. In any case, the offended party engaged EAT against council discoveries on the ground that the work court ought not have gone to a straight end that excusal is the discipline for the gross offense as it neglected to offer load to any alleviating components like past clear reputation, length of business and results of any excusal from the NHS. EA T agreed with her view that rundown excusal for a gross unfortunate behavior will be held void if no thought has been given to other moderating components like workers past reputation, length of administration and the result of any excusal. (Morris 2013). ... It ought to be shown that the occurrence was inspected, and palatable proof was accessible for the offense and for the representative to be educated and to get an opportunity to challenge any allegation in a regular disciplinary procedure. In such cases, the direct affirmed had just been set out in the preparation book or business contract; it would be favorable for the worker to demonstrate it to be a gross wrongdoing. Further, an intrigue procedure ought to be set up, and the representative ought to be allowed a chance to profit such an intrigue procedure. (Fenwick and Kerrigan 2011:221) The significance of the Reasonable The gravity and the idea of the culpable attitude will be seen at here. The court will ask whether the aura was so terrible as to obliterate the relationship between the worker and the business or did it simply make disturbance. On the off chance that the mien of the worker was not critical like not going to the workplace at the correct time, constant non-appearan ce, the council may see it as nonsensical for the business to hop for the prompt excusal without thinking about different activities or approvals. (Fenwick and Kerrigan 2011:221) In BHS v Burchell, it was held that business needs to support a judicious confidence in the blame of the representative well before excusing him, especially if there should be an occurrence of the supposed burglary. Nonetheless, John can suspend Smith and Freeman while they are under scrutiny. Both Smith and Freeman must be addressed independently from one another. (Holland 2013:385) In Monie v Coral Racing Limited, there was vanishing of money from the protected guardianship of the business. The litigant couldn't choose which of the two representatives who was liable for the

Women of The Underdogs Essay Example For Students

Ladies of The Underdogs Essay Mariano Azuela’s epic. The Underdogs. is a male-overwhelmed novel. The story of the accomplishments and wartime ventures of a renegade set during the Mexican Revolution is mostly determined by work powers ; the main part of the characters are work powers who are isolated from their family units and lives and who are battling for a reason where they unequivocally accept ( in any event toward the start of the novel ) . Notwithstanding the manly account. in any case. there are two incredibly created and significant female characters in The Underdogs. These grown-up females. Camila and War Paint. are a portrayal of two of the capacities grown-up females played during the Mexican Revolution. While the depictions Azuela shades of these grown-up females and their capacity in the public arena and upset are unrealistically precise. he pretermits the investigate different roads of commitment that grown-up females had in the transformation. In this way. Azuela semi-precisely depicts the capacities that grown-up females played in the upset during this clasp through the characters of Camila and War Paint. We will compose a custom paper on Women of The Underdogs explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now Through these two grown-up females. the advanced peruser can achieve a feeling of understanding as to two of the essential capacities that grown-up females played during the upheaval in the mid twentieth century. Camila is a youthful grown-up females who encapsulates a primarily residential capacity. providing solace. consideration and safe house to the Rebel troopers as such huge numbers of grown-up females did during this clasp in Mexican history. War Paint gives an unpolished complexity to the mellow Camila ; as her name proposes. she is a fierce and solidified warrior. a soldadera. Her capacity in the upheaval is vastly different: she truly joins the positions of the Rebel set drove by Demetrio Macias. also, fights close by the work powers. While the two grown-up females are very evolved characters who precisely speak to the piece of society from which they come. there are numerous grown-up females who took an interest in the unrest whose capacities did non fall into the â€Å"domestic† and â€Å"warrior† classs. Numerous grown-up females were columnists. lobbyists. also, proselytizers ; some were medical attendants. be givening to the hurt outside of their places ; some even took part in profound dissenting. Subsequently. while Camila and War Paint’s works in Azuela’s likeness of the Mexican Revolution are precise and all around created. there is an a lot bigger picture of women’s capacities that is losing from the novel. Womans in Mexican Society: Pre-Revolution So as to effectively see how women’s works in Mexican culture changed during the Mexican Revolution. we should dissect the social viewpoints of women’s conduct before this problematic clasp in their history. Womans in Mexico between the eighteenth and nineteenth hundreds of years experienced numerous changes as the illumination cleared across Europe and affected Spain. Were grown-up females simply useful for bring forthing children and thinking about a hubby? The answer to this request was in the method of being resolved even every piece ahead of schedule as the eighteenth century. In the late 1700’s. little stairss were taken to change the intercession and standpoints of grown-up females. Training. regardless of whether unrealistically constrained bearing was to be had. turned out to be progressively available to grown-up females populating in urban nations ; adjustments were made so as to give grown-up females to come access the work power ; grown-up females were even pushed and urged to fall in the fight for independency. Likewise with numerous states during this clasp. women’s rights had been restricted for quite a long time. so the adjustments that were made in Mexico during the Enlightenment permitted grown-up females to intrude on liberated from the cast that society had set upon them and research different roads. They could work outside of the spot. have a guidance. what's more, partake in political relations. regardless of whether it was to a constrained degree. Numerous grown-up females took part in the wars of independency. offering the ir administrations to help the state. After the opportunity was in the end accomplished. grown-up females were required to come back to their private areas and conventional capacities ; that is. raising a family unit. keeping up a spot. also, thinking about a hubby. In any case. numerous grown-up females did non wish to come back to their previous lifestyles ; they kept sorting out associations. buying in demands. what's more, attempting to demo the specialists how significant their parts to society could be. They appear to hold succeeded. at any rate limitedly ; the specialists appeared to recognize that grown-up females could be significant social members. be that as it may, made housing to the manners in which that they would be permitted to partake. Training was arranged toward the spot and family unit. associations and solicitations set up by females remained totally for grown-up females. what's more, the comparative. Despite improvements in the specialists. by the by. grown-up females went on to raise and encourage their families and serve their networks as they had preceding the wars of independency. .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79 , .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79 .postImageUrl , .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79 .focused content territory { min-stature: 80px; position: relative; } .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79 , .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79:hover , .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79:visited , .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79:active { border:0!important; } .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79 .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79 { show: square; progress: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-change: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; obscurity: 1; progress: darkness 250ms; webkit-change: mistiness 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79:active , .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79:hover { haziness: 1; change: murkiness 250ms; webkit-progress: darkness 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79 .focused content region { width: 100%; position: relat ive; } .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79 .ctaText { fringe base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: intense; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; content enrichment: underline; } .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79 .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; text style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79 .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; outskirt: none; fringe span: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; textual style weight: striking; line-tallness: 26px; moz-outskirt sweep: 3px; content adjust: focus; content adornment: none; content shadow: none; width: 80px; min-stature: 80px; foundation: url( arrow.png)no-rehash; position: outright; right: 0; top: 0; } .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .u417a06a5aab34 c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79 .focused content { show: table; stature: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .u417a06a5aab34c43ee7d2ed02cc55e79:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: Atomic Bomb 8 EssayBy the clasp the Mexican Revolution started. grown-up females were fit to be perceived to the full for their gifts and capacities. While numerous grown-up females decided to stay off camera and consideration for the warriors on the out of boundss. like Camila in The Underdogs. there were just as numerous grown-up females who decided to effectively partake in the transformation. Womans, for example, War Paint decided to go warriors. while others followed less risky waies ( albeit many were just as radical ) . In spite of the way that Camila and War Paint are both precise portrayals of the grown-up females who p icked the equivalent waies during the transformation. there are as yet a wide range of capacities that grown-up females played during this clasp Azuela does non concede. Womans in The Underdogs: Is It Enough? Despite the fact that Camila and War Paint’s accounts are woven all through the â€Å"bigger picture† of Azuela’s epic. their characters are carefully evolved and show perusers how grown-up females inside their capacities in the public arena and upheaval were relied upon to act ( and how they truly carried on ) . Camila is available all through the full story ; if non in person. than in name. She is the residential. mellow miss who remains on the out of boundss of the contentions and latently delaies for harmed. hungry or hound tired warriors to demo up on her doorsill and let her to think about them. War Paint. on the different manus. has a wild character and will not permit her life be directed by outside impacts ; she joins the Rebel set as a warrior. non a guardian. There were existent grown-up females who might hold typified the highlights of War Paint and Camila and took part in the equivalent or comparative exercises during the upset. however, there were other than numerous other grown-up females who did nil of the sort. Along these lines. Azuela could hold improved occupation depicting. or if nothing else adverting. different sorts of restriction and commitment of grown-up females in the upset. War Paint and Camila’s works in the unrest and society environing it. by the by. do give perusers a semi-exact depiction of certain things that grown-up females were making to participate in human advancement and society during this clasp in Mexican history. Camila: Womans in Society during the Revolution Camila. the local. first shows up after Demetrio Macias has been injured in a fight. The Rebels convey their pioneer on a cot to a little unassuming community. where

Friday, August 21, 2020

John Lewis Environment Forces Essay Example

John Lewis Environment Forces Paper John Lewis, one of auxiliaries of John Lewis Partnership (SLP), propelled its first store in Loon’s Oxford Street in 1864. The organization at that point has executed the natural developed methodology, seeking after a unique business and corporate technique. It has been fruitful by settling on the privilege key choices intensive compelling activity (Reagan and Sheboygan, 2012). By 201 2, the firm turns into the biggest global retail chain retailer in the I-J, with 30 retail establishments and 9 John Lewis at home, giving Fashion, Home, Electronic items and Home Technology grouping. It plugged that benefit before charge in 201 2 was E 15. 8 million, practically triple of that 10 years prior (John Lewis buddy between time report, 2012). Be that as it may, achievement can't just be estimated In term of account, yet in addition in term of stakeholders’ bliss. John Lewis accomplished Britain’s Favorite Retailer Awards for the fourth back to back year in 2011 and numerous different honors. This paper is going to utilize natural powers to clarify the accomplishments of John Lewis more than 1 50 years. The work contains primarily three sections: full scale natural power concentrating on four focuses, at that point moving to two components in smaller scale condition and end. Full scale natural powers Macro-condition is otherwise called outer condition which influences business choice in different manners and which can encroach on the change of the firm, yet in addition on the procedure of assets obtaining and on the creation and utilization of yield (Worthington and Britton, 2009). These powers can shape and moderate the conduct of all partners in the market including contenders, providers, clients and representatives. The large scale powers are frequently composed into political/legitimate, monetary, environmental/physical, social/social and innovation (Kettle et al. , 201 0, p. 1 54). We will compose a custom paper test on John Lewis Environment Forces explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom article test on John Lewis Environment Forces explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom article test on John Lewis Environment Forces explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer So as to explain its impact viably, the financial specialists organize them into barely any models, for example, PASTEL, DIPPIEST. This paper will apply the PEST model to consider: Political, Economic, Social-social and Technology impacts on the accomplishment of John Lewis. Political and Legal In request to anticipate and accomplish financial destinations, the administration endeavors to have some power over business condition. To recuperate the economy from the downturn, the Bank of England has generally set up the financing cost at under 2% since 2008. It intends to convince buyers that setting aside cash is less alluring as less premium is gotten and it likewise diminish he installment on contracts and different advances. Property holders, thus, have progressively optional pay, bringing about spending on other customer merchandise (Pain, 2009). Also, the low rate which implies little consequently, will expand customer trust in buying since cost of merchandise purchased in credit is less fortunate. In spite of the fact that the larger part items in John Lewis are exceptionally pay versatility like electrical and furniture products which are increasingly costly contrasting with them Of different retailers, for example, Deadbeats, the low intrigue supported the deals of the stores, in this way extraordinarily help performing during the downturn. The electrical and home innovative deals in John Lewis ascended by 13% in 2009, generally from TV deals (Pain, 2009). Since 2012, British government has urged organizations to rehearse Employee Share Ownership Plan (ESP.) which is offering offers to representatives with the point of asking inspiration, along these lines developing and improving efficiency (BBC Ne ws, 201 AAA). This system has been as of now rehearsed by Sir John Speeds Lewis, originator of JELL_p, numerous years prior and present as a novel figure of Jell_p. The affirmation of Nick College Deputy Minister of Britain, central as a run of the mill case of phenomenal representative possessed organization that is having an extraordinary reference and commitment towards the UK economy, has been again reinforced. Since government notice of SLP as a fruitful model of ESP., it can enlarge the notoriety of the Partnership. In term of explicit impacts on John Lewis Department Store, this respect is a huge advancement on national level, so empowering to keep up clients reliability and draw in increasingly potential clients which will profit its drawn out development. Financial matters The monetary emergency in 2008 caused the disappointment for some organizations across numerous nations on the planet, including the SKI. In any case, the Very low premium ate, referenced above, assisted John Lewis with surviving on the grounds that the low rate will build business certainty, subsequently more speculations are made. This is on the grounds that the profits on the future methodologies appear to surpass intrigue installments that must be made on obtained reserves. For example, with the E million for 6-week TV publicizing effort, the organization had the option to succeed even in the downturn as its gross deals expanded by 2. 8% during the crusade. Helping the organization endure and extend, another retail establishment in Cardiff speaks to John Lexis’s strong position in any event, during the unforgiving monetary condition (John Lewis Partnership yearly report and records). Additionally, United Kingdom is one of the nations which have high GAP on the planet, with the GAP in 201 1 of $2. Trillion and $37, 1 00 for every capita (Central Intelligence Agency 2012). Along these lines, it affirms that UK advertise with its solid buying force and expectation for everyday comforts makes favorable circumstances for each business, especially in retail segment. Solid buying force will build interest for products and ventures in the market, consequently the firm can utilize this points of interest to extend productivity (Egret and Kettle, 1999). Hence, John Lewis can profit by buying power so as to deliver more deals and increment the benefit. Furthermore, John Lexis’s items are somewhat higher in value in light of its quality, be that as it may, it despite everything has capacity to make up their cost to expand the benefit and rival different firms. It is on the grounds that the high salary and expectation for everyday comforts permit individuals to have more cash in their financial plan, subsequently for clients effectively tolerating a little change in cost. Thus, with serious evaluating, absolute deals at John Lewis rose 6. 7% and 21 % ascend in working benefit in 2009 (Gordon, 2010). Socio-social The achievement in kids deals are influenced by the segment change in the UK, including populace and age structure. The populace in Britain has been becoming continually throughout the decade, coming to around 63. 2 million of every 2011, 4 million more than recorded in 2001 (BBC News, 201 AAA). This, thusly influences John Lewis toys, nursery and infant deals that took off to 10. 3% in 2012 as John Lewis is popular for its unmistakable youngsters game, Logo (Holland, 2012). As per an ongoing BBC News, in 2011 the quantity of children conceived in England was the most noteworthy since 1971 , expecting another record-breaking in 2012 (BBC News, 2013). There insights from BBC News (201 20 showed that there has been an ascent in future in the UK with 16. % of individuals over matured 65, the most noteworthy record in any enumeration, because of high expectation for everyday comforts. An exploration asserts that develop individuals will in general spend more on their grandkids instead of on them and less on extravagance merchandise (Access financial matters, 2001 Hence, it is profoundly demonstrated that the more conceived infants and high maturing populace will prompt more noteworthy interest for children’s items, for example, toys, subsequently expanding deals on John Lewis when all is said in done. Then again, way of life can unmistakably influence people’s perspectives and practices Worthington and Britton, 2009, p. 144). The commonness of web makes another way of life wherein individuals grasp informal communities to impart. Understanding the quick spreading ‘culture’ informal organizations, for example, Backbone and Twitter in network, John Lewis has utilized them to find new pattern, subsequently stay in contact with clients. In the wake of propelling John Lexis’s Backbone page in 2010, today it has about 400,000 adherents (The Marketing Society, 2013). With such a colossal measure of individuals associating with the firm, the systems can be utilized for showcasing reason which is boundlessly practical rather than other publicizing apparatuses. John Lewis, for instance, can advise its supporters effectively about advancement and deal period, planning to empower deal. Innovation The rise of the web bolsters firms to manufacture and keep up client relationship by online exercises which may help the trading of thoughts, items and administrations (Mohammed et al. , 2001 refered to by Gay et al. 2007, p. 6). These days, individuals are busier so in-store shopping is less and less alluring or they would prefer not to be in the large number during top occasions, for example, Christmas. Internet shopping, which can substitute the conventional technique, can assist purchasers with purchasing at whenever and anyplace. Consequently, with the comfort, johnnies. Com is a significant component of John Lexis’s achievement. There was only 27. 2% expanded deals, contrasted with that in 2010, on johnnies. Com, representing 19% of aggregate in 2011 while the online deals rose by 40% in 2012, representing 25% of all out organization income (John Lewis buddy between time report 2011 , p. 6 and 201 2, p. 6). These figures express a critical improvement of online deals for the past two years. The John Lewis site, moreover, gives all data about items, for example, value, utilization presentation, so it isn't vital for clients to visit stores for gadget in this manner sparing time. It accomplished the â€Å"Best Online Retail† of 201 0 directed by Verdict Research (John Lewis), subsequently fortifying the picture. Smaller scale ecological fo

New Sexual Respect Education Program, Research Initiative at Columbia University COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

New Sexual Respect Education Program, Research Initiative at Columbia University COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Im sure some of you have read the news this year related to sexual assault on university campuses across the country. So I feel its important to share with all of you a new awareness  initiative on campus requiring all Columbia students to participate in new programming as part of their degree requirements (from workshops and films to group reflections and panel discussions). As  SIPA Dean Merit E. Janow put it, Columbia University is undertaking a major initiative to explore the ethics around sexual respect, one that encourages everyone to reflect on what it means to be a citizen of our Columbia community. At Columbia and around the country, issues around sexual assault and harassment, dating and intimate partner violence, and stalking are being examined in robust and challenging ways. Columbia University and SIPA are committed to maintaining a safe environment for all students, and  fostering an open dialogue and various educational opportunities. There are several policy implications with these issues, and this degree requirement is another way for our Seeple to mature and gain a vantage point that will help nurture their future endeavors. But this learning opportunity doesnt stop there. In conjunction with this new requirement, today, Columbia University President Lee C. Bollinger announced the launch of a major research project focused on sexual assault prevention. Below is his email  in its entirety: Dear fellow members of the Columbia community: I am writing to announce the launch of a major research initiative at Columbia to advance prevention of sexual violence. The study, the Sexual Health Initiative to Foster Transformation, or “SHIFT,” will be led by Jennifer S. Hirsch, Professor of Sociomedical Sciences at the Mailman School of Public Health, and Claude Ann Mellins, Professor of Medical Psychology in the Division of Gender, Sexuality, and Health in the Department of Psychiatry at the University Medical Center. As we work to address gender-based misconduct, our highest priority remains to prevent sexual violence before it occurs. But to do this most effectively, we need to help remedy what is a national deficit in evidence-based information relevant to creating the most effective prevention programs and policies. This study, focused on undergraduate life at Columbia, also will consider more broadly what can be done to promote healthy relationships and identify important risk factors that must be addressed in order t o establish a safer and more protective environment. Professors Hirsch and Mellins will be joined in their work by a research team involving a diverse group of faculty with expertise in gender, sexual health, sexual violence, young adult development, mental health, and the use of research to develop programs and policies directed at behavioral change. In addition, to account for the diverse experiences and perspectives of students, faculty, and administrators, they will consult regularly with the study’s Student and Institutional Advisory Boards. We are fortunate to be able to assemble these intellectual resources from our own community and to have the leadership of Professors Hirsch and Mellins, who possess a mix of intellectual acuity and energy for the project that, undoubtedly, will allow this initiative to make a substantial contribution to preventing sexual violence at Columbia and on campuses across the nation. Sincerely, Lee C. Bollinger   If youre interested in learning more about Columbia Universitys sexual respect initiative, click here.

Friday, June 26, 2020

Burger King Scholarship

Burger King Scholarship Burger King Scholarship History Dedicated to the memory of co-founder James McLamore, the Burger King McLamore Foundation began in 2000 and annually gives over 1.5 million dollars to more than 700 students nationwide. The organization looks to increase the amount of recipients yearly. The scholarship is also available to students who live in Puerto Rico and Canada. Related Articles Companies That Help Employees Pay for College Companies That Help Employees Pay for College Target Scholarships Target Scholarships Pep Rally Ideas Pep Rally Ideas Requirements of the Burger King Fund The Burger King McLamore Foundation sponsors the Burger King Scholars Program. The scholarship amount totals $1,000. This is the company's main scholarship program. There is also a smaller program that is solely for employees of the chain. In order to qualify for the Burger King Scholars Program, applicants must attain the following qualifications according to their official website: Be a senior student in a public, private, vocational, technical, parochial, or alternative high school in the United States, Canada or Puerto Rico. Have a cumulative GPA of at least 2.5 Work an average of 15 hours a week Participate in community service or similar co-curricular activities Demonstrate financial need Plan to enroll in an accredited college program Must be a resident of the U.S. or Canada In addition to academic records and an application form, students will need to submit letters of reference in order to complete the application. Additional requirements for the scholarship change yearly and should be adhered to by applicants. How To Apply Students can apply for the Burger King Scholars Program online at the official website. The scholarship application is available between October and February of each school year. Common Questions How are award recipients decided for the Burger King Scholars Program? According to their website, the Burger King Scholars program employes a selection committee that is not connected to Burger King itself. This committee delves through the submissions and considers applicants on the basis of financial need, extracurricular activities, letters of reference, academic achievements, awards, work history and community involvement. How long before I will know if I have won a scholarship? The selection committee that the Burger King Scholars Program uses moves quickly in order to allow students to know if they have received a scholarship. Within two weeks of the scholarship deadline, semi-finalists will be selected and notified. At that point, the semi-finalists will need to provide additional documentation to the selection committee. Anyone who has not been chosen as a semi-finalist will be notified by e-mail that they will not be receiving a scholarship. Finalists will be chosen from semi-finalists within two months of the scholarship deadline.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Effect of the Octopus Watch on the Task Completion of Self-Care Skills in Children with Autism - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1903 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/02/14 Category Medicine Essay Level High school Tags: Autism Essay Did you like this example? Independence is the ultimate goal for the majority of individuals in our society. For many, this goal is attained sometime between 18 to 30 years of age. However, for other individuals, such as those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), full independence may never be attained; the aim then becomes to minimize the dependency on caregivers and providers. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Effect of the Octopus Watch on the Task Completion of Self-Care Skills in Children with Autism" essay for you Create order According to Shattuch, Narendorf, Cooper, Sterzing, Wagner and Taylor (2012), about 80% of adults with autism live at home and only 6% have paid jobs. These statistics are alarming, clearly indicating that greater efforts are needed to design and use effective interventions that teach long-lasting functional daily living skills to individuals with disabilities. Functional living skills are those necessary to be an independent and productive individual in society (Hong, Davis, Neely, Ganz, Morin, Ninci, Boles, 2017); they include a variety of skills, from toileting and personal care to grocery shopping, banking and social skills (Ayres, Mechling, Sansosti, 2013). Given some of the core characteristics of ASD, such as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors, deficits in language and communication skills, and poor attending skills, individuals with autism heavily depend on others to accomplish daily living skills (Hong et al., 2017). According to Hume, Loftin, and Lantz (2009) there are three particular factors of ASD that hinder the acquisition and maintenance of skills: prompt dependence, initiation, and generalization of skills. Prompt dependence refers to learners relying on their instructors or caregivers to help them complete a task (even after they have already learned the task) (Mays Heflin, 2011). Initiation refers to the lack of motivation to initiate different tasks, such as chores, homework or even social interactions and, again, reliance on others to get started; Last, generalization refers to the individual’s ability to demonstrate learned skills with untrained stimuli and people, as well as in untrained settings (Hume et al., 2009). Hume et al. (2009) also reviewed three intervention strategies that have been effective in increasing independence in individuals with autism: Self- monitoring, individual work systems and video- modeling. These interventions are believed to be successful because they all focus on shifting stimulus control from continuous adult prompts during tasks to alternative stimuli. In self-monitoring, the individual learns to discriminate and record the occurrence or absence of a particular target behavior. In this intervention, the stimulus control remains within the individual; that is, the learner is the one who attends to his own behavior and determines if the behavior meets the requirement for reinforcement. When teaching self-monitoring skills (i.e., ability to monitor one’s own behavior) in individuals with autism, four steps are followed: (1) creating an operational definition for the target behavior, (2) determining reinforcers, (3) choosing a self-management method or device, and (4) teaching the learner to use the selected method (Hume et al., 2009). This strategy has been effective in changing a variety of behaviors seen in individuals with ASD. For example, when monitoring their own behaviors, individuals have improved on-task behavior (Callahan Rademacher, 1999), reduced stereotypic behavior (Koegel Koegel, 1990), increased pro-social beh aviors (Morrison, Kamps, Garcia, Parker, 2001), and, most importantly for the purpose of this study, increased the performance of daily living skills without prompts from the caregiver or provider (Pierce Schreibman, 1994). With self-monitoring, the learner has greater autonomy and responsibility, which reduces the dependence on prompts from others in their environment (Hume et al., 2009). Similarly, an individual work system is a teaching strategy that highlights visual supports and focuses on reducing the recurrent need for teacher prompts and feedback and increasing independent functioning (Hume et al., 2009). In individual work systems, the learner practices mastered skills in a visually organized setting. In this setting, the work system transmits four pieces of information: (1) the target task the learner is supposed to complete, (2) how much work the individual needs to do, (3) how the learner will know when he/she is finished with the task, and (4) what to do once the task has been completed. This strategy uses a left-to-right system where the learner completes all of the activities placed on their left and then moves them to the right (i.e., the finished pile) as they complete them. In this intervention, the stimulus control shifts from the caregiver’s or provider’s prompts to the visual stimuli presented. Video modeling is another visual strategy that promotes teaching different skills with minimal prompts from others. This is the third intervention reviewed by Hume et al. (2009). With video modeling, the individual learns a skill by imitating the behavior modeled by another person in a video. This technique is appealing to individuals with ASD because it helps them attend to relevant information required for the task while blocking out distractions. Furthermore, watching videos is a pleasurable activity for most individuals with ASD (Hume et al., 2009). One strategy not mentioned by Hume et al. (2009) that has also been effective in promoting independent skills and reducing prompt dependency is the use of visual activity schedules (VAS) (Koyama Wang, 2011). This approach utilizes visual cues to teach the learner a sequence of activities or tasks independently (McClannahan Krantz, 1999). The purpose of activity schedules is to give the learner a visual cue of what will come next in his or her schedule. The visual cues are pictures, photographs or textual prompts related to the task. For example, an image of a sink would signify it is time to wash hands and an image of a bed would represent time to go to sleep. Parallel to the interventions mentioned earlier, stimulus control can be transferred from the caregiver or provider to the picture. Once the learner masters responding to the picture cues alone, the pictures can then steer behavior in the absence of a caregiver (Koyama Wang, 2011). Outcomes of existing research have shown that people with disabilities can learn to use picture cues so effectively that they can even follow successfully multiple long behavior chains (e.g., washing hands, brushing teeth and then dressing). These results are significant because they indicate that VAS can be a useful strategy in reducing prompt dependency in individuals with disabilities, while promoting independence. Furthermore, activity schedules are not limited to particular ages, intellectual functioning or diagnosis and can be adapted and individualized for all persons (Koyama Wang, 2011). A review of the literature by Knight, Sartini, and Spriggs (2015) examined 16 studies to determine if visual activity schedules can be considered an evidence-based practice. Interventions are believed to be evidence-based when they have consistently shown to be effective in at least five research studies, three geographical locations, and with a minimum of 20 participants (Knight et al., 2015). Based on the studies reviewed, the authors determined that visual activity schedules meet the criteria to be called an evidence-based practice and can be used to maintain, expand and generalize a variety of skills in multiple settings. Further, their results suggested that VAS can be used to (1) teach on-task behavior and appropriate transitions, (2) decrease latency to begin tasks, and (3) decrease the need of prompts during transitions. Similar to the results of Knight et al. (2015), in a literature review by Koyama and Wang (2015), they found that activity schedules increased engagement and on-task behavior. They also suggested that one reason why disruptive behaviors may decrease with activity schedules is that as individuals allocate more time on on-task behavior less time is allocated to maladaptive behaviors. One caveat they discovered from different studies is that when the researchers removed the activity schedules, on-task performance declined to baselines rates. However, as soon as they represented the activity schedules, performance increased back to post-treatment levels. This finding is important because the mode of presentation may have higher significance than we think; in other words, the way in which the visual schedule is presented to the individual (e.g., binder, book, Velcro strips, or portable device) may be a crucial variable in determining the success the individual will have with following th e schedule. Due to the previously mentioned deficits observed in individuals with autism such as stereotypic behaviors and poor attending skills, activity schedules that require the individual to carry a binder or book with multiple pictures may be cumbersome. In a situation where the child loses one picture from the schedule or misplaces the entire binder, then he/she will not be able to follow independently the activities scheduled in his day. Thus, other devices that are easier to carry and can be easily accessed may be better alternatives to individuals with attending deficits. In the last years, a couple of studies have embedded activity schedules within different portable devices including a tablet and an iPod touch (Brodhead, Courtney, Thaxton, (2018); Carlile, Reeve, Debar, 2013). For example, Brodhead et al. (2018) evaluated the effects of using a visual activity schedule embedded within an iPad to vary the play across different applications in three children with autism (age range 4-9). The activity schedule was a six-slide presentation created with the keynote application (similar to PowerPoint). The first page showed the participant’s name and the second through the fourth page depicted two pictures on each slide: one of a timer application and one of the application they had to play during that slide. The fifth slide showed the picture of the YouTube application and a timer, and the sixth slide said, â€Å"The end.† Brodhead et al. (2018) used manual guidance to teach each participant how to follow the schedule and did not provide any praise or tangible reinforcers during teaching sessions. Nonetheless, they programmed the YouTube application to be at the end of each sequence to potentially serve as a reinforcer for the completion of the previous three tasks. Results showed that all participants varied their play from one application during baseline to an average of four applications during treatment. In the same way, Carlile et al. (2013) taught four children (ages 8-12) with autism to independently organize their spare time by using a visual activity schedule embedded within an iPod touch and in the absence of a supervisor or reinforcement. The researchers added five pictures (of different activities) to the photo icon on the iPod touch, and the participants followed the schedule in the order of the pictures. Similar to Brodhead et al. (2018), Carlile et al. (2013) used manual guidance to teach the participants how to complete the activity schedule; however, they faded prompts using a progressive-time delay procedure instead of using graduated guidance. They also used nine different levels to fade the proximity of the experimenter and thin the schedule of reinforcement from FR-2 (i.e., reinforcer delivered after every two correct responses) to no reinforcement at all. Before the intervention, none of the participants were able to correctly follow any of the components in the ac tivity schedule provided on the iPod Touch. After the intervention, the percentage of correctly completed components increased from 0% to an average of 95% in all participants. The percentage of intervals scored on-task also increased for all participant from an average of 15% to an average of 90%. Both studies, Brodhead et al. (2018) and Carlile (2013) demonstrated that activity schedules were effective in increasing on-task behavior, the percentage of correctly completed steps and improving independence altogether. To date, there have not been any published studies examining the use of activity schedules embedded within a watch to increase the task completion of self-care skills in children with autism. Thus, the present study will assess the effect of the Octopus Watch on the task completion of three self-care skills in four children diagnosed with ASD. The dependent variables will include the latency and duration of completing tasks and the percentage of correctly completed activity schedule components in the absence of a caregiver or provider.