Monday, September 30, 2019
The miracle of life is the single most experience that every woman will remember in her lifetime. Almost every detail of the whole process can be definitely recalled by the mother, no matter how long it had happened. Every woman may have their own unique story of the parturition in every child she may have. But one thing is for sure, this amazing event is life changing, both an ending and a beginning. It marks the impending end of gestation and the start of a new family structure. The labor process is a time of different bursting emotions. There is the excitement of seeing the baby for the first time; fear of what might occur during the culmination of pregnancy and the unforgettable, excruciating, agonizing pain of contractions. The transition of events is very hard, long and rewarding all at the same time. Giving birth has been divided into three stages. The first stage of dilatation is the beginning of true labor contractions and ending when cervix becomes fully dilated. The progress and length of this stage varies from every woman to another. But definitely, the pain goes incredible as the contractions started coming closer and closer together. The mother may experience feelings of helplessness, restless, irritable, anxious and even out of control as contractions become stronger. The second stage is from descent to the birth of the newborn. This is the bittersweet part from the entire horrible aches that had transpired. This is the long awaited moment when you finally meet the precious one, actually touching his or her tiny hands and giving her warmth with your own bosom. I would like compare this journey into zealously unwrapping a huge special package that no matter how you have known what is inside of the gift; one will still be caught in awe upon laying eyes of the presence. The feeling is better than receiving that first I love you from someone you fell in love with. Lastly, from the time the baby is born until following the delivery of the placenta. There will be a sudden gush of blood. The placenta separates first at edge and delivers with maternal surface evidence. Now, the roller coaster drive of pregnancy ends. Labor normally launch when a fetus is sufficiently mature to cope with extra uterine life, yet not too large to cause mechanical difficulties in delivery. In some instances, labor initiates before the fetus is mature. On the other hand, labor may be delayed until the fetus and the placenta have both passed beyond the optimum point for birth and this is now termed post mature birth. In fact, some women need to be induced with medications to start or hasten labor. If all interventions fail, the mother must deliver her child without expulsion and must immediately need to submit to cesarean section, or surgical removal of a child, instead of having the baby pass through the birth canal. In summary, it can be said that while there is a general expected trend in the way each child birth will go, there is really no predicting the outcome for each individual mom. In fact, the only predictable factor of parturition may be variance. Inevitably, even how thoroughly science can explain the process of pregnancy until the expulsion of the newborn; it always feels surreal and marvelous how a person can bestow another life from her.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 12:08 PM
Sunday, September 29, 2019
From 1945 and beyond, leaders have selected different paths to affect change. Some encouraged independence through violence, peaceful actions, diplomacy, and the commitment of their struggling nation. Others sparked revolutions by appealing to the peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Through policy, and sometimes uniting a people, trailblazers changed the face and structure of their nation. A column from a journalist during the time period would help to see a broader perspective during such varying and exciting time. Decolonization, revolution, and nation building are all goals of any effective leader willing to make a change. Spanning from 1945 to 1975, countless independence movements have changed societies across the globe, led by leaders and organizations who all yearned for better. The Ã¢â¬Å"Declaration Against Colonialism,Ã¢â¬ adopted by the United Nations, took a firm stand on the demise of colonialism. The document petitioned for a definite end to colonialism and encouraged self-determination, stating that all human beings have a right to their own societal and political choices. Such a statement coming from an organization comprised and backed by countless nations surely stands its ground. The United Nations, supporting the end of colonialism, inspired countries to strive for freedom through the organizations obvious power. It also displayed the end of a colonial era, seeing as though many colony-yielding nations were members of the UN. (Doc 1). Ho Chi Minh, Vietnamese nationalist, too felt the need for freedom. Minch expressed the VietnameseÃ¢â¬â¢s determination to end French colonization i n their country. Minch made it clear that violence would be condoned and encouraged to win this battle. Ho Chi Minch embodied VietnamsÃ¢â¬â¢ fighting will for a separation and willingness to shed blood in the process. (Doc 2). In a similar suit, Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya shared his hate for colonialism and his approval of violence. He claims that Kenya belongs to its inhabitants, not colonizers who held his people back. Kenyatta believed that the only way to approach self-rule is through bloodshed. (Doc 6). Mohandas Gandhi of India had a quite parallel approach. From an excerpt written by him, it is seen thatÃ Gandhi believed the path to independence was paved with nonviolence and self-sacrifice. Gandhi in many ways led Indians to Independence. Even after his death, he was a guiding light for those who coveted an India without the British. (Doc 3). Kwame Nkrumah, leader of GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s independence, expressed his goal dismay for colonialism. He saw the system as contractual and exploitive to his country. He calls the independence movement Ã¢â¬Å"the greatest awakening ever seen on this earthÃ¢â¬ . By portraying colonialism as a heinous and abusive practice, Nkrumah led Ghana to independence. (Doc 5). A letter from the British monarchy as a response to colonial independence would give insight as to whether they see themselves as negatively as their colonies do. In South Africa, China, and Cuba, social and political revolutions pioneered by inspiring people occured. Nelson Mandela, speaking on his fight against apartheid, conveyed his commitment to the cause. Mandela dreamed of a South Africa where equality and democracy was not a scarcity. Unfortunately, his reality at the time was far different. Nelson Mandela was willing to die for the cause. His dedication inspired others to continue to fight for justice in South Africa. This infectious determination is was enabled Mandela to lead the campaign for termination of this policy. (Doc. 4). In China, Mao Zedong led his country to the communist revolution. In a speech he delivered, he vocalized a goal to build faith in the party. The method applied by Zedong focused on uniting China under one belief in order to implement communist ideas in the country, widely changing the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s structure. (Doc 7). At his defense trial, Cuban revolution leader Fidel Castro appealed to those struggling in his country. He spoke to those who hoped for a brighter future and who have been betrayed by their country. By addressing their battle, Castro urged them to fight for a better Cuba. His relentless and undying commitment ultimately granted Castro his wish for a revolution. (Doc 8). An additional document consisting of a diary entry from a Chinese citizen during the communist revolution would create a clearer vision as to how convincing Mao Zedong truly was. Some modern leaders look more inward as to their nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ policies and people to affect change. Hosni Mubarak, former President of Egypt, aimed to unite his country and better certain systems to strengthen the nation. When in a hard and confusing time, Mubarak provided Egypt with a steady guiding hand. In the midst of this chaos, instead of addressing the questions and wants of the people, Hosni Mubarak demanded they offer themselves to supply the needs of their country and support their leader. This mindset calmed Egyptians as Mubarak reopened Egypt to the Arab world, tried to reaffirm the constitution and judicial system, and tackled social issues. (New Leaders of Nations #1). Former prime minister of India Narasimha Rao was first questioned by the Indian people as to his ability to lead. This was turned around as he implemented many policy changes in India. India, fairly unfamiliar with outside involvement, now encouraged foreign investment. RaoÃ¢â¬â¢s programs for economic growth and investment, both foreign and Indian, faced opposition from possible disorder. However, RaoÃ¢â¬â¢s use of intellectual thinking and a new, open India, aided his decisions. A documentary depicting evolving countries as they face modern challenges would be helpful in grasping what qualities leaders who create change possess. Those who create ripples of change in their societies all have varying methods and roles. Some strive for revolution, others independance or policy reboots. It is important to keep in mind that each situation creates unique circumstances; some changes require new methods. To further understand which methods are suitable for particular situations, letters from different leaders who have created change would be helpful.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 11:26 AM
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Micro & Macroeconomics and their impact on daily life - Essay Example The term Ã¢â¬ËmicroÃ¢â¬â¢ has been derived from the Greek word Ã¢â¬ËmikrosÃ¢â¬â¢ which literally means small. Thus Microeconomics studies economic actions and behavior of individual units and small groups of individual units. Hence, Microeconomics engages in microscopic study of the economy and seeks to determine the mechanism by which different economic units attain their positions of equilibrium, proceeding from individual units to narrowly defined groups. In a modern economy Microeconomic theories and postulates play a very significant role in understanding economic behavior of rational units of an economy. Operation of an economy: Microeconomics explains how a free enterprise operates and functions. Most economies of the world are mixed economies consisting of both public and private sector enterprises where the private sector is much larger than the public sector. Microeconomics explains how a market economy with millions of customers and producers decides the allocation of scarce productive resources among millions of goods. Efficient use of scarce resources: One of the principal problems faced by every economy is to ensure efficient employment of scarce resources between competing ends. Microeconomics helps to understand the mechanisms involved in this regard and assists policy makers to take rational decisions that would achieve economic growth with stability. Economic welfare: The whole structure of welfare economics is built upon the Microeconomic theory of Perfect Competition since maximization of economic welfare is possible only under Perfect Competition.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 10:15 AM
Friday, September 27, 2019
The Arab Gulf States Domestic Stability - Essay Example The above quote, while lengthy, is pertinent to the focus of this study. It very accurately explains the degree to which the security and political structure of the Arabian Gulf is changing and draws attention to the potential for further change. The Gulf states, as indicated, are living a volatile period wherein changes tend towards the revolutionary, as opposed to the evolutionary. If anything, this highlights the vulnerabilities to which these states are currently exposed and underscores the imperatives of adopting measures which are designed to minimize the threats emanating from these vulnerabilities or, at least, manage their potential for inducing domestic stability within Gulf states and across the Gulf regime. Instability within the Arabian Gulf has far-reaching consequences. ... Besides oil, the Gulf region also has sizeable reserves (2,509 trillion cubic feet - Tcf) of natural gas, accounting for 41 percent of total proven world gas reserves".4 Ensuring the free and stable flow of the oil from the region to the world at large is the primary goal of the western states. Instability in the region or the collapse of any of the Gulf regimes would detrimentally impact upon the global economy and the consequences would not, under any circumstances, be confined to the region. Instead, western economies would totter on the brink of disaster and governments would flounder. The security of the Gulf, therefore, is of primary concern to Western nations and, indeed, as former U.S. President Jimmy Carter once said, is integral to the national security of Western nations, chief amongst which is the United States.5 For the Gulf states, however, having a healthy relationship without any mistrust among regional states, is the primary objective. Mistrust "Trust means to believe that someone is honest and will not harm you, cheat you etc."6 Unfortunately, however, mistrust was injected into the relationship between the Arab Gulf States members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)7 and Iran, after the Islamic Revolution of 1979. The said mistrust significantly increased in the wake of the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s. While the majority of GCC member states stood with Iraq against Iran in that war, it is believed that this stance contributed to the generation of mistrust between both sides until today. The aforementioned, alongside Iran's historic regional ambitions, combined with the improvement in the relationship between the Arabs and the West, especially the United States of America, only compounded the mistrust. The fact that
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 9:06 AM
Thursday, September 26, 2019
CLOCKS - Assignment Example Quartz crystals can be set vibrating with an electric current with crystal vibrations ranging from 2.5 to 5 million times a second. This means that vibrations in quartz clocks allow them to get time measurement to an accuracy down to a millionth of a second. The present day quartz clock developed in the early 1900s, clock needs certain basic requirements for it to work. First, it must have a power source that will allow it to create motion. Second, the clock must have a time base which provides a periodic oscillation dictating the measurement of time. The time base is essentially the device that controls clock signals. Lastly, it must have a way to convey the information generated by the time base and be able to display this information to actually tell time. During the 19th century until the middle of the 20th century, the pendulum clock was the standard time teller. The principle of the pendulum at work is such that its swing is independent of the amplitude, or size, of the swing. In effect, the only factors affecting the amplitude are the length of the pendulum and the force of gravity. Each swing of the pendulum releases a spring-loaded ratchet in the clock mechanism, which drives the hands. If the pendulum is left alone, frictional forces would act upon it and so it will eventually stop. Thus, a pendulum clock must contain a weight-driven or electrically operated mechanism that periodically pushes the pendulum to keep it swinging. Pendulum clocks and earlier versions of watches known as chronometers are quite cumbersome because their movement stops when they are not wound. In addition, pendulum clocks are highly dependent on external forces such as the force of gravity and temperature. Thus, quartz clocks and watches are the more popular options today. Quartz clocks are battery powered with gears regulated by a tiny crystal of quartz. When the battery sends electricity to the quartz crystal through an electronic circuit, the quartz crystal oscillates at
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 3:33 PM
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Gendered-Language Journal - Essay Example Sociolinguistics is the study of society and language. Sociolinguistics attempts to analyze the social factors which leading to the diversity of human languages, whereas many linguists concentrate on exploring unity under the diversity of human languages. In a nut shell, sociolinguists focus on the differences in languages and variation within a particular society language. As stated earlier, this paper will focus on the aspects of sociolinguistic variations in terms of gender based conversations. For example, television interviews, conversations in professional meetings, and daily readings. Language is particularly a form of social behavior and societies tend to split into groups displaying behavior differences. People react and behave variedly when giving information or involved in a particular conversation especially where a common gender is involved. This is generally due to the fact that language defines group identity because of its deep social function. People of same gender in a particular social group speak like one another. This strengthens the bonds and at the same time divides people from those in other groups speaking differently. This is a result of dialect. Dialect signals there individuals come from. This may be regional dialect and has significant applications to the social background of individuals. In a conversation within a common group of people or gender, they appear distinguished from other groups in their linguistic structure and features such as grammar, accent, pronunciation, and vocabulary. Most often than not, people of different dialects hav e varied accents, however, speakers of a common dialect may show different accents as well. This has resulted into Standard English; however, people speak differently and uniquely due to their education, life experience, aspiration, and age. This is what is observed in gendered language (Aitchison, 1978). In any particular gender conversation, for
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 11:49 PM
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
CASE ANALYSIS - Essay Example Competitors were now offering better services that included pool services and karaoke services. The company was not providing such services. Regulation encompasses the three levels of government, which includes the federal, provincial, and municipal levels. Regulation can influence the business environment through the increase or decrease of the tax rate that affects the cost of doing business. The economy conditions were perfect at the inception of the business but later in the business life, the economy was in recess but still the company managed to make more profits in spite of the prevailing conditions. The survival was because of the market niche the company had cut for itself in addition to the competitive advantage they enjoyed. At the beginning of the business, social interactions were limited to offline. Internet was not well accessible by individuals at the commencement of the business. However, as years went on internet was accessible by a majority and the advent of social networks resulted in the diversification of interactions from offline to online. Fork and dagger had not included social network advertisement as a form of marketing, something that the competitors embraced. Businesses affect natural factors through pollution, which can be through noise, water, or air. In effect, companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ day-to-day operations can present an ongoing risk to the natural environment. To diminish the likelihood of harm to the environment, businesses need to reconsider certain natural environmental features in their overall plans. Fork and dagger long time existence in the market even after other competitors had closed shop was due to the strengths they had. The quality of service offered was exemplary as there were outstanding services provided by the staff over the years. Cable television at the inception was unavailable in the bars around Struan. Therefore, this
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 11:12 PM
Monday, September 23, 2019
Some thing has related about ENVI - Essay Example Demand for products of crop farming in Indiana is ideal. There is an active growth in demand for products of crop farming. Moreover, the demand for farm products imports is also high. This indicates that the available supply of farm products does not satisfy the current demand. Indiana spends between 1-9.9 billion dollars for farm produce imports (Hicks, 2014). This raises concerns about the farm products production capacity of Indiana. Many forests have been cleared for the sake of creating agricultural farms. A big percentage of forest land in Indiana is privately owned (Our Land Our Literature, 2014). Therefore, there lacks national control measures for deforestation. Deforestation has resulted into reduced rains and thus reduced agricultural productivity. Moreover deforestation also destroys the natural habitat of animals and birds. Although organizations such as Indiana Forest Alliance and Heartwood have come out to educate people on the need to stop deforestation, there is still a lot to be done. The forest cover in Indiana has reduced by 59% in the last thirty years (Alexander, 2013). The agricultural sector is at high danger of collapsing due to poor climate. If campaigns against deforestation are not carried out, Indiana might spend more than 10 billion in imports for farm products. If nothing is done, the currently growing population is bound to experience challenges such as famine and hiked prices of farm products. Hicks,Ã M.Ã J. (2014).Ã Key Economic Sectors in Indiana: State Overview. Retrieved from Center for Business and Economic Research, Ball State University. website:
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 10:03 PM
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Activity 1 - Ford & Taylorism - Assignment Example Workers in these three countries are accustomed to industrialization and most of the manufacturing companies within these countries currently apply the Taylorism management technique, which means that workers presently receive specialized training on various tasks and hence they can perform better in specified tasks. According to Lewis & McDermott (2006), the best script for call centers must consider the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s journey. Customers journey include designing a matrix of customer needs against solutions been offered in order to map the foundation of the intended customer interaction and make sure every interaction is covered. Taylourism is evident in this because the principle of scientific management is brought out clear in the aspect of deciding or planning the work in advance, and also in the determination of standards of performance. The advantages of a bureaucratic organization is that each role is standardized. It fosters specialized skills, which then eliminate the immanent judgment. Therefore, it is correct to argue that industrialized areas within the World would highly prefer the ideas of Taylorism
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 8:55 PM
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Magazines play in womens lives Essay The womans magazine came into existence in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century (Margaret Beetham, 1996 pg 6). They were generally aimed at the upper and middle class ladies, as these were the only women who had spare leisure time and the disposable income to purchase luxuries such as weekly magazines. During 1949-74 there were two extremely dominant themes in womens magazines. First there was the overwhelming star billing given to love and marriage- and the family. Second there was the heavy emphasis placed upon the Self, and the responsibility ethic laid upon every woman to be the self staring, self finishing producer of herself (Marjorie Ferguson 1983 pg 44). It is clear from the beginning that womens magazines promoted a picture of a perfect woman, which still exists today. One could argue the continued success of womens magazines is due to the development of the magazine as a commodity. They have also become a crucial site for the advertising and sale of other commodities, whether nightgowns or convenience foods (Margaret Beetham 1996 pg 2). Womens magazines play a vital role in many readers lives. But do they wrongly portray a perfect woman? Many women struggle to maintain a perfect home, their children and a happy marriage. One could argue womens magazines both add to this pressure, and act as a form of advice to women unable to cope with what is expected from them according to the media and gender stereotyping. In the early years of womens magazines the emphasis was put upon providing entertainment and practical advice. In this case the magazine fulfilled a role of a reference text, which women could refer to for recipes and other advice. The entertainment factor meant the magazines were viewed as a bit of light relief for women with busy lives. Janice Winship portrayed the role of womens magazines in the eyes of the existing culture extremely differently. Men do not have or need magazines for A Mans World; it is their world, out there, beyond the shelves: the culture of the workplace, of politics and public life, the world of business, property and technology, there they are all boys together. Women have no culture and world out there other than the one which is controlled and mediated by men (Janice Winship 1987 pg 6). In this respect womens magazines provide an insight into the Womans world. The womans world which womens magazines represent is created precisely because it does not exist outside their pages (Janice Winship 1987 pg 7). Therefore the role which magazines play in this respect is of high importance to women. It acts as an escape into their own world which suggests why womens magazines have been so popular in the past and continue to be as successful today. Marjorie Ferguson argued that womens magazines collectively comprise a social institution which serves to foster and maintain a cult of femininity (Marjorie Ferguson 1983 pg 184). She puts forward a much more positive view of womens magazines and feels that the magazines purely identify their target market and then aim to provide their readers with encouragement and entertainment to do with the business of being a woman (Marjorie Ferguson 1983 pg 184). It is clear from the above that in the past when women had little rights the role of the womens magazines had a great importance to women. It enabled them to have a world of their own almost, a world which was not purely occupied with males. In todays society where women have equal rights to men (supposedly! ) the role of their magazine is not nearly as important in their lives. It does continue to provide the same features although there is a world out there not purely controlled by men, therefore the role of womens magazines is slightly less important in the day to day activities of women. One could claim it acts as light relief although the images portrayed in these magazines can lead to this portrayal of the perfect woman. In todays society, it is difficult not to examine ones body and feel a sense of discontent if it doesnt mirror the lanky images one sees in not only fashion magazines, but also all areas of advertising (Annie Doig 1998). Women are increasingly faced with images of the perfect woman. The portrayal of women in womens magazines all follow the same pattern, they have a well-groomed appearance and a slim body image. Media such as television, movies, and magazines are considered to be among the most influential promoters of the thin standard, given their popularity and accessibility to the people (Anne Marlowe1998). As womens magazines have a massive influence on womens self-concept many women quickly become dissatisfied with their body even at an early age. Ironically the ideal of feminine beauty which is being promoted is impossible for the average woman to achieve. This level of unhappiness can lead to an eating disorder in an attempt to conform with the publicised norms. Between 1970 and 1990, there was an overall increased emphasis on weight loss and body shape in the content of a popular womens magazine (Anne Marlowe 1998). This concludes that the roles of womens magazines changed from traditional and entertaining values into portraying women as consumers and directly targeting womens own anxieties to make money. Interestingly there is evidence to suggest that eating disorders, especially anorexia and bulimia, are most prominently seen in white women (Molloy 1998). One could claim a high proportion of womens magazines are aimed at white females. They are not directly discriminative but you rarely see a black cover girl with features on how to cope with African hair types for example. This example outlines the impact these magazines have upon womens self-perception. Males are also less likely to suffer with an eating disorder. This can be directly linked with the fact that male magazines are primarily concerned with leisure, pleasure and activities, in contrast as discussed womens magazines focus on beauty, dieting and domesticity. Women are under massive pressure to conform to these unrealistic pictures of beauty. That in turn results in many women in narcissistic absorption with oneself- with ones physical appearance (The image of femininity in womens magazines 1998).
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 7:42 PM
Friday, September 20, 2019
Should America Issue A Domestic Moratorium? Matthew Evan McElwain Thesis It is a well-known fact that America is the most militarily powerful nation on the planet Earth, and though some may argue it, our ability to intervene globally is the ultimate proof of this, as well as our ceaseless victories throughout wars in history, including the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, the Korean Conflict, the Vietnam War, the Persian Gulf War, the War in Iraq, the War in Afghanistan, and the current ongoing War on Terror. However, it brings into question the morality and sensibility of maintaining such a massive offensive force, which is what shall be analyzed in this paper. Introductory Information First and foremost, it is imperative that the definition of moratorium is defined. A moratorium is said to mean aÃ suspension of activity (Merriam-Webster Dictionary). With this in mind, it calls into perspective the entirety of this papers concept. A complete cease upon militant interventionism and expenditure within the United States of America. As it currently stands, the budget of the United States Armed Forces stands at $585.2 billion for the fiscal year of 2016 (United States Department of Defense Budget Request Fiscal Year 2016), which is the most recent recording of it. This points towards the fact that the United States of America spends more money upon its armed forces than the 6 nations beneath us combined, with 5 of them acting as our allies and the other a nation with which we commence trade, who combined spend only $572.6 billion. (John U. Nef, War and Human Progress). Military Budget According to the United States Department of Defense, America spends $100,000 on each newly trained soldier per year, including their equipment, feeding them, and deploying them to their stations within the continental United States and overseas military bases owned and operated by the United States of America (John U. Nef, War and Human Progress). Since entering just Iraq, America now spends $4.3 billion per month in Iraq, and each soldier deployed overseas costs anywhere between $850,000 to $1.4 million per year (Larry Shaughnessy, One Soldier, One Year), and this doesnt include the maintenance of artillery, vehicles, and armaments within the country and across the world. The maintenance of all cruise missiles is $830,000, for Abrams tanks, the military standard, $6,210,000, and F-22 Raptor, the most common stealth plane in the United States Armed Forces, $150,000, each B-2 Stealth Bomber, $1.01 billion, Virginia Class Submarines, $2.3 billion, and for each individual of the 10 aircraft carriers owned by America, $13.5 billion (J. William Harbard, MilitaryEducation.org). This is a direct confirmation of the military-industrial complex that Former President of the United States of America, Dwight D. Eisenhower, forewarned about in his speech to the American people in 1961, suggesting that America, while free, when faced with the Cold War, would proceed to develop into a nation whose entire economy is meant to support the military, rather than the military develop to protect the citizens of the United States (Dwight D. Eisenhower, Public Papers of the Presidents). With this all in mind, it becomes extremely apparent that slashing of the military budget is an inevitably solid concept, rooted in the beliefs of former presidents and the modern citizens of the United States of America that America must make strides towards generalized demilitarization. Imperialism America has a long-standing history of Imperialism, although, not of the colonial form, militant imperialism. America is, for all intents and purposes, in the business of building itself up to step upon any and all who oppose it, with members of the United States Armed Forces being some of the most patriotic in the world, a particular famous quote being, I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country. (Captain Nathan Hale) The United States became an empire in 1945. It is true that in the Spanish-American War, the United States intentionallytook control of the Philippines andCuba. It is also true that it began thinking of itself as an empire, but it really was not. Cuba and the Philippines were the fantasy of empire, and this illusion dissolved during World War I, the subsequent period of isolationism and the Great Depression. The genuine American empire that emerged thereafter was a byproduct of other events. There was no great conspiracy. In some ways, the circumstances of its creation made it more powerful. The dynamic of World War II led to the collapse of the European Peninsula and its occupation by the Soviets and the Americans. The same dynamic led to theoccupation of Japan and its direct governance by the United States as a de facto colony, with Gen. Douglas MacArthur as viceroy (George Freidman, Coming to Terms With the American Empire). With the occupation of Japan following wartime efforts, America truly crossed the boundary, having annihilated the chance of the continuation of the Empire of Japan via the force of nuclear fire and subsequent eradication of their hierarchal culture, America finally moved on to the status of an empire, founded on unbridled economic strength and military power following World War II, the America of the 19th Century was lost during these two World Wars. Our culture was, for the most part, shifted towards the right, with conservativism and strength of nation the most important value to the United States of America as we as a nation entered the Cold War against the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (the Soviet Union). Franklin Roosevelts vision of a neocolonial world system with US hegemony and cooperation among the global powers, including the Soviet Union, was cast aside by the ideological construction of the Cold War, which defined communism as evil and expansionist, requiring the defense of democracy through a permanent military preparedness. A liberal-conservative consensus emerged. There was wide agreement on the militarist application of Keynesian economic principles, facilitating the growth of the economy and the capacity for military intervention anywhere in the world. Conservatives as well as liberals ended up supporting this approach, which reduced the differences between the two to the dimension and the quality of the intervention of the state in the economy, with neither side rejecting its tax collector-investor function in the production of arms (Arboleya 2008:133). And there was consensus based on Cold War ideological premises. In foreign policy, the distance between liberals and conservatives was reduced to the point of converting Roosevelt into the last traditional liberal that occupied the White House. As liberalism moved toward militant anti-communism in the context of the Cold War, liberalism ceased to be an alternative ideological current for foreign policy, expressed on the basis of a different political agenda. Militarism united both currents, and although differences persisted between conservatives and liberals in regard to the procedures to be utilized, nearly no one questioned the strategic importance of US expansionism. Isolationism became obsolete during the Second World War. The United States no longer was separated from the rest of the world by the ocean or by anything. Like the dollar, its soldiers appeared everywhere (Arboleya 2008:138) (Charles McKelvey, The Cold War and Imperialism). Militant Globalism At the height of the Cold War, the threat of Soviet invasion lurked constantly in the minds of Western Europeans. Their fears were not unfounded: a majority of the land that lay to the east of the Iron Curtain had become subjected to the direct influence of the Kremlin. The Kremlins coercive arm, the Red Army, stood at the ready along multiple European borders. It was in this context that the governments of the Western world sought to pool their collective military forces in order to better withstand any potential Soviet aggression. Thus, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (or NATO) was born. Unified in their solidarity against the communist menace, the member states of NATO shared common purpose. The eventual collapse of the Soviet Union, however, deprived them of this common purpose: no longer was there an imminent, existential threat to the capitalist countries of Western Europe. Many would argue that NATO, with its original rationale for existence made inapplicable years ago, is irrelevant in the modern era. Yet this could not be further from the truth. NATO is still a highly relevant organization within the framework of contemporary international affairs due to the active role it plays in collective security,humanitarian intervention, and international politics, and therefore will become all the more prominent in the future. In the post-Cold War era, NATO is becoming increasingly indispensable to its member states as the West transitions from a security landscape defined by a single, dominant threat, to one defined by a diverse range of credible threats. As previously explained, NATO was originally established to respond to the possibility of a Soviet offensive against Western Europe. Its sole objective was to protect the borders of its constituent states from unwelcome intrusion by the Eastern bloc. In these circumstances, few additional issues were of particular concern to NATO. This alliance against a mutual Soviet nemesis would persist throughout the duration of the Cold War, right up to the fall of the Berlin Wall. However, once the U.S.S.R. withered away into the pages of global history, NATO suffered from what some characterize as an identity crisis, (Friedan, Lake, and Schultz 187). Stripped of its source of strategic unity, NATO had no inherent reason to exist (Neil Misra, The Relevance of NATO in the Modern World). Neil Misra argues that NATO was born of mutual defense, and to dissuade communistic rhetoric in the Western Hemisphere, that the world most needed somebody to stand against communism, as the ideology couldnt work in all countries. Arguable, it seems he is correct, as in a planned economy (and a communist society is a planned economy, there is some sort of central bureau that has to make decisions about what to produce), its left to bureaucrats and planners. Worse, there are no prices in a pure Communist society, no indicators bringing together the information of thousands or even millions of people on the subject. How do you know how many cars, how much bread, how many wrenches and pens and notebooks to produce? How do you decide how many of any of thousands of goods and services to produce? You dont. The economy fails to function, stuck in a layer of juxtaposition that it cannot remove itself from due to the nature of the established bureaucracy. And herein lies the problem. We find with significant obviousness that America has not only consistently and in a manner that is completely unchecked flexed its metaphorical muscles for the sake of military and political gain, but has determined with great affluence that it deserves the right to maintain its place as the strongest sovereign entity within the United States. Recently, with the increase by President of the United States of America, Donald J. Trump, of the military budget by $52.6 billion, America has continued towards this path of imperialistic doctrine, and has shown that it does not plan for there to be a cease in such military action across the globe, especially considering the new conflagration of events with the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea. It is, without a doubt, apparent that America take action and begin to make strides towards stricter regulation of our Armed Forces. Proposed Solutions It is apparent that a moratorium must go into effect, as that would halt our expansionist policies and put a limit upon how much we grow militarily, this means that enlistment would be put on halt, and funding to the military cut, to a respectable 54%, and current service members moved into other government jobs or cut and given extremely well thoughtout benefits so that they may work on pursuing a better, more fulfilling life, post service. Another possible solution to this issue would be the disarmament of the United States of America, including, but not limited to, decommissioning old vessels, giving our old armaments to our allies, and removing funding for newer technology. The United States could also recommission the militarys purpose and put it towards funding and aiding humanitarian causes, and fulfilling global treaties, as well as move the United States into a state of armed neutrality. The United States of Americas military and military budget are both so massive that they could easily be used for the purpose of nation-building and gentrification in countries that are less developed than the United States of America. Ultimately, the fact of the matter is that the United States Armed Forces needs a mass downsizing, either in the form of budget cuts, disarmament, the removal of our military bases in foreign nations, a refocus on Humanitarian Effort, or the decommissioning of our forces so that the military can be put into a smaller, more justifiable size. Conclusion From the written and spoken testaments of several sources, as well as the general opinion of our allied countries, citizens, and politicians, it is apparent that America must slow or cease military expenditure and military operations and divert funding from the military towards more useful sources, such as domestic gentrification, education, space exploration programs, healthcare, or civil affairs. America must lead the world as a true show of democracy, freedom and liberty, without succumbing to globalist imperialism, international rhetoric or the whims of our politicians. It is absolutely imperative that America begin to make a change, lest we begin to sacrifice the survival of the citizen, for the survival of our Armed Forces. Ultimately, funding must be cut and a moratorium put upon military-based operations, as well as a cut to supporting our allies militaries. America must demilitarize. Bibliography Ã Freidman, George. Coming to Terms With the American Empire. Stratfor.com. N.p., 04 Apr. 2015. Web. 07 Feb. 2017. Misra, Neil. The Relevance of NATO in the Modern World. SIR Journal. N.p., 4 Dec. 2015. Web. 21 Feb. 2017. Webster, Noah. New Collegiate Dictionary. A Merriam-Webster. Springfield, MA: G. C. Merriam, 1963. Print. McKelvey, Charles. The Cold War and Imperialism. Global Learning. N.p., 3 Oct. 2013. Web. 21 Mar. 2017. Frieden, Jeffry A., David A. Lake, and Kenneth A. Schultz. World Politics: Interests, Interactions, Institutions. New York: W.W. Norton, 2016. Print. Nef, John Ulric. War and Human Progress: An Essay on the Rise of Industrial Civilization. New York: Norton, 1978. Print. Eisenhower, Dwight D. The Cumulated Indexes to the Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953-1961. Millwood, NY: KTO, 1978. Print. Shaughnessy, Larry. One Soldier, One Year. CNN. N.p., 12 Feb. 2012. Web. 3 Mar. 2017.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 6:29 PM
Thursday, September 19, 2019
As technology of the past gives way to the technology of the future, the world is becoming a smaller and smaller place. In economic terms, Global Interdependence is increasing as time goes on. In other words, we as the United States, as well as other countries, rely on each other for the three factors of production, Land, Labor and Capital. As noted in Thomas L. FreidmanÃ¢â¬â¢s book, The World is Flat, there are several instances in which the Global Interdependence started. For example, the introduction of the Internet created a common forum in which people could connect to each other instantly was revolutionary in the interdependence process. In addition, the Global Interdependence Center, located in Philadelphia, PA is a non-profit organization that has a global goal. According to the GIC their mission is to Ã¢â¬Å"encourage the expansion of global dialogue and free trade in order to improve cooperation and understanding among nation states, with the goal of reducing internation al conflicts and improving worldwide living standards.Ã¢â¬ The American Economic system has become closely linked to foreign economies through global interdependence by the rise of new technologies, methods of communications and transportations that break down barriers that previously could not have been broken. This is shown in our relationships with countries and organizations such as China, The European Union, and OPEC. As Globalization increases, countries become more reliant on each other for resources such as oil. Oil, nicknamed Ã¢â¬Å"Black Gold,Ã¢â¬ has become one of the most valuable resources in the world. According to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the United States of America is the largest consumer of oil in the world, devouring a whopping 19,150,000 b... ...ds and it would help us make a firmer footprint in history. Works Cited Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat: a Brief History of the Twenty-First Century, 1st updated and expanded ed. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006), page nr. http://www.interdependence.org/about/overview-mission/ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2174rank.html http://www.cnbc.com/id/41887743/The_World_s_15_Biggest_Oil_Producers?slide=16 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sa.html http://www.opec.org/opec_web/en/data_graphs/330.htm http://recession.org/history/1970s-oil-crisis http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/wto_dg_stat_e.htm http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact2_e.htm http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact2_e.htm#nondiscrimination
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 7:15 PM
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Nervous System The two types of the nervous system are the Central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. They are responsible for integrating, processing, and coordinating Sensory data and motor commands the central nervous system, which interprets sensory input and carry information to maintain homeostasis. CNS canÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t be regenerate because a CNS consists of the spinal cord that mean if itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s break the spinal cord is break also. The peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord. It is a thick bundle of nerve fibers located within the spinal cord. The PNS can be regenerate and it will regrow. The brain and spinal cord are the main parts of the nervous system. The brain controls every part of your body and is located top of our head inside our skull. The spinal cord with controls our movement. Nerve cells contain 3 parts: dendrites, cell body and the axon. Dendrite is the receiving part of the neuron. It is a short extension of the cell body And send signals toward the cell body and the cell body conducts nerve impulses which in the transmission of the nerve impulses from the region to the other cell. The axon is a single extension carries the message to the next neuron, which controls all of the nerves. The nerve impulse is response of the neuron. There are 3 classes of neurons: sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons. Neurons are also called nerve cells. A sensory neuron takes information from a receptor to the CNS. A motor neuron takes information away from the CNS. An interneuron transfer information between neurons in the CNS. It also sending out signal to the muscles resulting in contraction or movement. Nerves impulse occurs when an action potential changes rapidly. When action potential occurs, the sodium gates will open as Na+ flowing into the axon the changes from Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"65mV to +40mV, this is call depolarization and during repolarization the charge as k+exits the axon from +40 mV to Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"65mV.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 8:36 PM
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
There is No Certainty in Dover Beach How can life or anything be so wonderful, but at times seem so unbearable? This is a question that Matthew Arnold may have asked himself one day, while writing Dover Beach. This is a poem about a sea and a beach that is truly beautiful, but hold much deeper meaning than what meets the eye. The poem is written in free verse with no particular meter or rhyme scheme, although some of the words do rhyme. Arnold is the speaker speaking to someone he loves. As the poem progresses, the reader sees why Arnold poses the question stated above, and why life seems to be the way it is. During the first part of the poem Arnold states, "The Sea is calm tonight" and in line 7, "Only, from the long line of spray". In this way, Arnold is setting the mood or scene so the reader can understand the point he is trying to portray. In lines 1-6 he is talking about a very peaceful night on the ever so calm sea, with the moonlight shining so intensely on the land. Then he states how the moonlight "gleams and is gone" because the "cliffs of England" are standing at their highest peaks, which are blocking the light of the moon. Next, the waves come roaring into the picture, as the y "draw back and fling the pebbles" onto the shore and back out to sea again. Arnold also mentions that the shore brings "the eternal note of sadness in", maybe representing the cycles of life and repetition. Arnold then starts describing the history of Sophocle's idea of the "Aegean's turbid ebb and flow". The sea is starting to become rougher and all agitated. Also the mention of "human misery" implies that life begins and ends, but it can still be full of happiness, and unfortunately, at the same time, sadness. "The Sea of Faith was once, too, at the full, and round earth's shore." The key word in that stanza is once, because it implies that he (Arnold) used to look at the sea in a different way than he does now. Throughout the whole poem, Arnold uses a metaphor to describe his views and opinions. Now he only hears its "melancholy, long, withdrawing roar." It seems as though Arnold is questioning his own faith. The whole poem is based on a metaphor - Sea to Faith.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 9:57 PM
1. Background of Study Tourism is clearly of large importance for developing countries. Islamic Republic of Iran, by having great natural resources and historical back ground and heritages should be able to make a great use of these potentials to create a healthy and on growing economy. Recently, government of Iran has started to invest more on tourism sector of the country, but it is not easy for government to implement all the strategies they need for growth in the industry.There are many issues which should be taken into consideration before applying those strategies. One of these issues is the population of poor people in the country, which is a great quantity from the overall population, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any important role in this implementation and strategies or benefits. Poor in Iran canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to travel and also canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to invest and be dynamic part of industry. Travelling is considered as a luxury facts which not everyone can afford to do it and more over invest on it.There is a need for setting up a new type of tourism in country which everyone can travel and invest and get the benefits of it and more people can participate. However, according to Dilys R (2001), analysis of tourism data in developing a country shows that in most countries with high levels of poverty, tourism is significant and increasing. The poor can participate in the tourism industry in many ways Ã¢â¬â as workers, entrepreneurs, and neighbors. They gain new opportunities but also face limitation. They earn incomes, but also suffer costs of tourism.These impacts vary enormously from destination to destination. Enhancing the opportunities and impacts for the poor is the concern of this research. Pro-Poor Tourism (PPT) is about how the business of tourism is done. The impacts of tourism on the poor depend very much on the behavior of private companies and individual tourists. At the same time, these are strongly influenced by Government, through its policies , regulations, public investment, expectations, and actions, not only in tourism but in other sectors too (Caroline A, 2006).As mentioned by Dilys R (2001) Ã¢â¬Å"Achieving poverty reduction requires actions on a variety of balancing fronts and scales, but for such to happen it is required a significant progress is pro-poor growth Ã¢â¬â (growth which benefits the poor)Ã¢â¬ . Together with that Dilys R (2001) also questioned, Ã¢â¬Å"As an industry that is clearly important in many poor countries, can tourism be one source of such growth? Ã¢â¬ 1. Country profile: Islamic Republic of Iran Iran, a country slightly larger than Alaska, is located in the Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf in the south and the Caspian Sea in the north.It covers an area of 1. 648 million square kilometers (636,296 square miles) and is edged between Iraq, with which it shares a border of 1,458 kilometers (906 miles), and Pakistan and Afghanistan in the east, with which Iran h as 909 kilometers (565 miles) and 936 kilometers (582 miles), respectively, of common borderline. Iran also shares 499 kilometers (310 miles) of borderline with Turkey, 992 kilometers (616 miles) with Turkmenistan, 432 kilometers (268 miles) with Azerbaijan, and some 35 kilometers (22 miles) with Armenia, the latter 3 states formerly being part of the USSR (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009).Most of the 2,440 kilometers (1516 miles) of coastline are on the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. The two gulfs are connected by the strategic Strait of Hormuz. Iran has dozens of islands in the Persian Gulf, many of which are uninhabited but used as bases for oil exploration. Those that are inhabitedÃ¢â¬ânotably Qeshm and KishÃ¢â¬âare being developed, attracting investors and tourists. The Iranian coast of the Caspian Sea is some 740 kilometers (460 miles) long.Apart from being home to the sturgeon that provides for the world's best caviar, the Caspian Sea is the world's largest lake, with an area of some 370,000 square kilometers, and is co-owned by Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009). In general, Iran consists of an interior plateau, 1,000 meters to 1,500 meters (3,000 feet to 3,500 feet) above sea level, ringed on almost all sides by mountain zones. The Elburz range with the Iranian capital, Tehran, at its feet, features the country's highest peak, the snowcapped volcanic cone of Mt. Damavand, at 5,604 meters (18,386 feet).To the north of the range there is a sudden drop to a flat plain occupied by the Caspian Sea, which lies about 27 meters (89 feet) below sea-level and is shrinking alarmingly in size. The larger Zagros mountain range runs from north-west Iran down to the eastern shores of the Persian Gulf, and then eastward, fronting the Arabian Sea, and continuing into Pakistan (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009). Iran has a relatively young population, with 34 percent of the population unde r the age of 14 and 61 percent between 15 and 64 years of age. Thanks to a family planning program, population growth decreased from 3. percent in 1984 to 1. 7 percent in 1998 and further to 0. 83 percent in 2000. Of the population, an estimated 38 million Iranians (or 60 percent) live in urban areas, while approximately 27 million live in rural areas (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009). The population density was 37. 6 inhabitants per square kilometer (97 per square mile) in 1998, though many people are concentrated in the Tehran region, and other parts of the country (especially deserts) are basically uninhabited. Basic literacy rates are above the regional average, although uncertain reporting standards give a wide margin for error.In 1997-98 the central bank estimated literacy at 80. 5 percent in those over 6 years old, with 75. 6 percent of women and 85. 3 percent of men judged to be functionally literate, i. e. they were taught to read and write at some point (Encycloped ia of the Nations, Iran, 2009). Iran's infrastructure is relatively poor and inadequate. Part of this stems from the fact that the vast country was never fully developed, but it also experienced considerable setbacks during the Iran-Iraq war of the 1980s, and restoration since then has been slow (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009)Iran has a network of 140,200 kilometers (87,120 miles) of roads, of which 49,440 kilometers (30,722 miles) are paved. The 2,500-kilometer (1,553-mile) A1 highway runs from Bazargan on the Turkish border across Iran to the Afghan border in the east. The A2 runs from the Iraqi border to Mirjaveh on the Pakistani frontier. Tehran is linked to major cities in the vicinity by 470 kilometers (292 miles) of express-ways. A heavy expansion of car use has led to increased demand for fuel, severe overcrowding of roads in metropolitan areas, and mounting pollution problems.Government estimates put the average annual increase in domestic fuel consumption at 5. 5 percent, well above the real economic growth rate. The government has sought to limit motor use by raising domestic fuel prices, but petroleum products in Iran remain heavily subsidized and among the cheapest in the world (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009) Before the revolution Iran had begun to build a reputation as an exotic holiday destination; its ski resorts at Shemshak and Dizin, north of Tehran, attracted international celebrities.After 1979, the Islamic government discouraged tourism, leaving many renowned archaeological and historical sites, including Persepolis, Pasargard, and Esfahan, barely visited by foreigners (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009). Although hardly a booming sector, visitor rates are beginning to rise. The government has begun to issue visas more freely to non-Muslim individuals and groups, and the country is appearing with greater frequency in tourism brochures, but still only around 320,000 foreign tourists actually visit, bringing in reve nue of US$170 million.The bulk of tourism remains to be founded on Shia pilgrimage centers such as Mashhad and Qom. The Bonyad-e Mostazafan (Foundation of the Oppressed), which owns most of Iran's large hotels, plans to increase the number of hotel beds from the current 34,500 to 59,500 by 2002 (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009). 2. Tourism in Iran Currently, Iran is a country covered in political, religious, cultural, social and economic controversy.It is a country that magistrateÃ¢â¬â¢s extreme emotional and ideological debate and faces challenges as a tourism destination both because of this controversial context and as a result of its association with conflicts in neighboring countries like Afghanistan and Iraq. Distinction of tourism in Iran is complicated by its position at a cultural crossroads, the time-span over which invasions and migrations have taken place and the present day situation where a large population of recent refugees exists from wars and political un rest in neighboring countries.Iran has enormous cultural diversity on the one hand and a homogeneous religious authority on the other but it is the latter that currently dominates. Furthermore, government which protects and promotes its own brand of Islamic indigenous culture and heritage with a fierce pride and an international image epitomized by US President BushÃ¢â¬â¢s reference to the Ã¢â¬Ëaxis-of-evilÃ¢â¬â¢ and you have a situation where indigenous tourism in the normal sense of the phrase is suppressed. Even when used in a conventional sense, the term indigenous tourism is much contested but certain key concerns and debates emerge from the literature.These include: multifaceted host, guest and intermediary relationships; lack of industry knowledge and incorporation of local cultures; lack of local awareness of tourism and ownership of tourism related businesses; and a need for carefully considered policies to avoid degradation of culture and ensure development is sustai nable (Kevin O. G, McLellan L. R & Tom B, 2007). Many of these concerns are relevant in Iran to some extent although it is argued in this chapter that indigenous tourism has been suppressed in Iran. Nevertheless, there are indications that a unique form of local tourism infused with indigenous character has begun to emerge.This local variation of indigenous tourism is taking shape despite the striking homogeneous national image portrayed in the international mass media. The early stage in the tourism development life cycle means that tourism is generally considered as a national phenomenon, at a national scale rather than local. Growing links between tourism and the protection of IranÃ¢â¬â¢s national cultural heritage were reinforced in 2005 with the merger of Iran Touring and Tourism Organization (ITTO) and Iran Cultural Heritage Organization (ICHO) to form the Iran Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization (ICHTO) (Kevin O. G, McLellan L. R & Tom B, 2007).Although the strong in fluence of the central government is clear with direct authority for the new organization resting with the Vice President of the Islamic Republic of Iran (WTO, 2006), the link between culture heritage and tourism allows vestiges of indigenous tourism to survive but not flourish. 2. Problem Statement How much pro-poor tourism is known by tourism policy makers of Iran? Since, there is no record or papers found about pro-poor tourism in internet or media, According to the research in the internet , there is no evidence to prove IranÃ¢â¬â¢s government are aware of the opportunities and benefits of pro-poor tourism in general.Moreover base on the research, there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t any specific actions or strategies done by government to implement pro-poor tourism in Iran. There is a big gap between opportunities and potentials of tourism in Iran and plans and strategies done by the government to make use of these opportunities. As a result there is not much attention to pro-poor tourism in I ran as well as other types of tourism like eco-tourism and medical tourism and etc. But what are the issues of implementing pro-poor tourism strategies in IranÃ¢â¬â¢s society?First problem is lake of knowledge and awareness on this type of tourism. There is no evidence shown that, there are groups or people in government or private sector who think or plan for Po-poor tourism in Iran and it as a big squander for tourism sectors of Iran. Following by first issue, the second will be the lake of planning and strategizing the steps and creating visions and working on that plans. Third is to implement the plans and start educating the poor to use the benefits of it. 3. Research questionsBased on the statement and significance of study presented, the research question will be: 1: Is pro-poor tourism adoptable in IranÃ¢â¬â¢s society? 2: How political and religious issues can effect pro-poor strategies? 3: What are the ways to plan effectively for pro-poor tourism in Iran? 4: What are t he stages of implementing pro-poor tourism in Iran? 5: What will be the issues and problems of implementing the pro-poor tourism strategies? 6: How to monitor and review for performance of pro-poor tourism strategies? 4. Research objectives : To find the best understanding of pro-poor tourism The research first objective is to introduce the pro-poor tourism to Iranians Government as well as private tourism organizations, and create an excellent understanding of this type of tourism in Iran. 2: To create a goal and mission One of the requirement for this progress will be creating goals and missions to understand better how to reach our goals and whether we reach the goal of the strategies or not and also to evaluate the progress better. 3: To structure and plan for putting our strategies into actionOnly understanding of Po-poor tourism in not enough to benefit the society, there should be a plan to implement and follow to gain our goals and missions. 4: To implement the strategies co rrect and accurate and controlling the action constantly There should be a way to controlling the progress even during implementing it to find whether strategies are correct or to make sure that there are putting in to action correctly. 5. Theoretical Frame Work In this research, the researcher wishes to find how pro-poor tourism can help IranÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism for further developments and improvements.To gain this goal first need to find out opportunities, challenges and issues related to the research and analyze it. Second step is to create the right strategies and to find how these strategies can help development of tourism in Iran. 6. Conceptual Framework 7. Significances of research 1: How pro-poor tourism can helps in rising economy. 2: How pro-poor tourismÃ¢â¬â¢s income can be distributed to the poverty in the society. 3: How pro-poor tourism can help society in other aspect, such as creating more jobs, motivates poor, educate people and etc.This paper will also discuss abou t the economical potentials of pro-poor tourism in Iran. This study believes that Iran have many potentials in tourism industry which never used or discovered by the government and people who works in tourism industry. One of the potentials are implementing pro-poor tourism and developing the tourism in poor or not very developed areas. By developing tourism specifically pro-poor tourism industry, government can decrease unemployment and help poor, by teaching them fishing rather than giving them fish.Poor which most of them donÃ¢â¬â¢t have chance to study or build a new business for themselves can be educate by government or by NGOs and social committees and be able to become a part of tourism sector and help themselves and family and also subsequently help the society and government as well. 1. Importance of Tourism Industry Tourism is a leading industry in the service sector at the global level as well as a major provider of jobs and a significant generator of foreign exchange at the national level.Tourism has become one of the largest and fastest growing industries in the global economy. During the period between 1996 and 2006, international tourist arrivals worldwide grew at an average annual rate of about 4. 0 per cent (United Nations Report, 2007, p. 10). According to the report by United Nations in (2007, page 12) about Role of Tourism in Socio-Economic Development, Ã¢â¬Å"The strong growth in tourism arrivals in Asia, particularly the sub regions of North-East Asia, South Asia and South-East Asia is one indicator of the increased significance of tourism for developing countries.Visitors worldwide have clearly recognized the attractiveness of tourism experiences in Asian and Pacific developing countries in terms of the rich cultural heritage and natural environment. Many officials in these countries have seen that tourism can be part of their development strategies, especially in economic terms. Ã¢â¬ Tourism is considered based on its contribution in the form of receipts; share of gross domestic product (GDP) and exports; and growth rate patterns for the tourism industry, tourism economy, government expenditures and capital investment.The economic impact of the tourism industry is usually assessed at the macroeconomic level and can be measured in several different ways. The most general measurement focuses on tourism receipts and the contribution of tourism to a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP (United Nations Report, 2007, p. 26). The United Nations Statistics Division and the World Tourism Organization (now UNWTO) developed the tourism satellite account in 2001 as one of the most systematic measurement of the economic impact and contribution of tourism at the national level (United Nations Report, 2007).According to the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), the TSA is Ã¢â¬Å"based on a demand-side concept of economic activity, because the tourism industry does not produce or supply a homogeneous product or service like many tradition al industries. Instead, the travel and tourism industry is defined by a diverse collection of products (durables and non-durables) and services (transportation, accommodation, food and beverage, entertainment, government services, etc) that are delivered to visitorsÃ¢â¬ . It is important for policy-makers at national and local levels to see that this diversity has many complex links to all parts of the economy.This is what makes the economic impact of tourism so significant for development. There are various definitions of social development, and most of them converge around the concepts of improving the well-being of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens, promoting higher standards of living, increasing employment and creating conditions of economic and social progress. Employment is one of the most readily available indicators to begin measuring the social impact of tourism, since job creation generally helps create the opportunities for better standards of living and related conditions o f socio-economic progress (United Nations Report, 2007, p. 8). In socioeconomic terms, linkages refer to the connections between the tourism industry and local suppliers of goods and services through both the formal and informal economy. Leakages refer to payments or financial flows made outside the economy of the destination country. For companies in various sectors of the tourism industry, linkages are seen in business terms as the supply chain. Linkages can stimulate increased economic activity and have a positive effect on balance of payments as local products replace imported ones.The positive impact of linkages also relates to the capabilities and competitiveness of domestic firms. Among the direct benefits from effective linkages are increased output of the linked enterprises, increased employment, improved market access, increased knowledge and a broader skill base. In addition this could improve efficiencies in productivity, managerial capabilities and market penetration (U nited Nations Report, 2007, p. 54). 2. Historical evidence of tourism in Iran Iran is a country that is rich in diversity in cultural and historic terms, representing a recorded human history that stretches back some 10,000 years.The people who inhabit this country have a long history of involvement in tourism. There is considerable evidence for hostels that dates back to at least 2000 BC. These hostels supplied drinks, sex and accommodation for travelers. Drinks included date palm wine and barley beer, and there were strict regulations against diluting them (Gorman O. K & McLellan L. R, 2007, p. 303). Ã¢â¬Å"The application of strict Islamic law and a consequent political ambivalence to international tourism is not universal in predominantly Muslim countriesÃ¢â¬ (Gorman O. K & McLellan L. R, 2007, p. 03). Today, IranÃ¢â¬â¢s heritage draws both on native histories and cultures as well as the impact of waves of raider, notably the Greeks of Alexander the Great, the Arabs who int roduced Islam to the country, the Mongols from the east and in the twentieth century, the influence of the oil hungry west (Britain, France and the US). IranÃ¢â¬â¢s solid cultural assets include seven ancient locations recognized by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as World Heritage Sites as well as a range of renowned Islamic shrines and cultural sites.IranÃ¢â¬â¢s natural heritage is also diverse, including desert, mountains and coasts across climatic zones from temperate to sub-tropical (Gorman O. K & McLellan L. R, 2007, p. 303). In actual fact, what have generated particular interest in Iran as a host country for domestic and international tourism are the Ã¢â¬Å"effect of religious interpretation by the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s brand of contemporary Islam on the political, religious, cultural, social and economic environment and the everyday lives of citizens and visitors alikeÃ¢â¬ .Iran adheres to strict standards of observance and the app lication of stringent penalties for non-compliance with respect to social and cultural behavior impacting upon personal association, dress and the consumption of alcohol and other recreational drugs. Certainly, these rules impact upon IranÃ¢â¬â¢s image, market potential as a destination for international tourism and the role of indigenous people in tourism. 3. Definition of Pro-poor tourism What is Pro-poor Tourism (PPT)? Pro-poor tourism is about increasing the positive impacts of tourism on poor people. PPT is not a specific product but an approach to the industry.It is an approach that seeks to increase participation of poor people at many points in the sector, and that aims to increase their economic and social benefits from tourism while reducing the negative impacts on the poor. (www. propoortourism. org. uk) PPT is the kind of tourism that contributes to the reduction of poverty. It is neither a specific product nor a niche market. It is multi-level, multi-dimensional and a ny tourism can be made pro-poor. There are many NGOs and government organizations involved in PPT but the driving force for change will be the private sector.There is an increasing realization that to be sustainable, PPT initiatives must involve the private sector in reducing poverty through business activity, rather than alleviating it through philanthropy. PPT initiatives work well when access to natural resources is maintained and exposure to risk is minimized. PPT can also bring important benefits such as more jobs, business opportunities, and improved access to infrastructure and services (Pro poor Brochure FINAL, 2006). 2. 3. 1 Why Pro-Poor Tourism? Tourism is a major economic sector worldwide and especially in developing countries.According to the World BankÃ¢â¬â¢s World Development Indicators Report (2002), more than 70% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s poorest countries rely on tourism as a key engine of economic growth. Poorer countries have the most to gain from PPT initiatives. B ut they are also the most vulnerable to the negative effects of mass tourism, in terms of social, environmental and cultural degradation. Furthermore, the distribution of benefits and income from tourism is often not equal. Financial benefits usually end up at the big hotels, tour companies and airlines.Poorer people too often suffer the negative costs of tourism. PPT engages poorer people and seeks to empower them so that they too share in the benefits from tourism (Pro poor Brochure FINAL, 2006). 4. Challenges of Pro-poor tourism in the World According to the World Trade Organization, international tourist arrivals in 2005 reached an all-time high of over 800 million. By 2020, arrivals are expected to reach 1. 6 billion, generating US$2 trillion. While global tourism numbers increase, this does not necessarily translate into increased revenue for citizens of many developing countries.A few factors typically prevent the disadvantaged from sharing in the tourism dollar. (Pro poor Br ochure FINAL, 2006). Most tourism dollars end up off-shore. Typically, only US$10-20 of every US$100 spent by the tourist remains in the developing country. According to United Nations Environment Program, of each US$100 spent on a package tour, only around US$5 actually stays in a developing countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy (Pro-poor Brochure FINAL, 2006). The Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership says, Ã¢â¬Å"One of the critical issues for poor producers is often access to the market Ã¢â¬â access to the established industry and to tourists. Smaller hotels and guest houses and local NGOs have little or no opportunity to market to tourists via the Internet, thus they gain little share of the dollars tourists spend. Some would question the very starting point Ã¢â¬â engagement with companies to promote pro-poor change. Tourism companies, after all, are profit-seekers, whose business is commercial tourism, not development. But the assumption reinforced to the work presented here is that Ã¢â¬Ëwe Ã¢â¬â¢ (as society) should seek to reduce the impact of tourism business (Caroline A and Gareth H 2004). . 4. 1 The argument goes as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Poverty is widespread and direct approaches to poverty reduction are making insufficient progress Ã¢â¬â thus Ã¢â¬Ëpro-poor growthÃ¢â¬â¢ is also needed, i. e. growth which is inclusive of the poor. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tourism is a major economic sector worldwide, with particularly rapid relative growth in poor countries, thus is potentially very important for pro-poor growth. Ã¢â¬ ¢ (Limited) evidence shows tourism can be developed in ways that increase net benefits for the poor.Furthermore, one approach to this is for companies to do business differently, and evidence indicates that doing business in pro-poor ways can make commercial sense. This should, therefore be promoted (Caroline A and Gareth H 2004). 5. Pro-poor tourism practiceÃ¢â¬â¢s in the world Nowadays, as world is emerging into globalization, Tourism Industry has become one of the main income resources of many developed and some developing countries. As Tourism booming, they are several practices done to gain exposure, especially in the context of this research.One example is in Nepal where the Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation initiated the Tourism for Rural Poverty Alleviation Program (TRPAP) from 2001 to 2005. The immediate objectives were to demonstrate sustainable tourism development models, review and improve policy formulation and strategic planning, adapt institutional mechanisms, including decentralization, in order to achieve sustainable tourism development that would be pro-poor, pro-environment, pro-rural communities and pro-women (New York: United Nations, 2005).Another example is; The Mekong Tourism Development Project of the Lao National Tourism Authority and Asian Development Bank focuses on improving tourism related infrastructure, promoting pro-poor, community-based sustainable tourism in rural areas, and strengthening sub-regional cooperation. The project provides training to local people on guiding, hospitality, cooking, tourism management, and marketing. Technical and financial assistance is also provided to help communities build tourism infrastructure such as guest houses, toilets, rest areas and nature trails Steven S, 2007). To monitor socio-economic impacts, a community-based tourism monitoring protocol has been established and implemented over the past 3 years. Project outputs include several community-based tourism related training manuals in the Lao and English languages, dozens of marketing and promotion publications, seminars, workshops and training course materials for tourism service providers and regulatory agencies, and some 40 small-scale infrastructure projects ranging from handicraft markets to information centers and village tourism lodges (Steven S, 2007).The project is producing direct financial benefits for over 600 families in 16 villages and indirect benefits for a much w ider population. To date, sales of community-based tours developed by the project and sold by local inbound tour operators have generated over US$175,000 in foreign exchange. Tour companies that partner with the project and tourist attractions where the project is active report that revenues of two million dollars have been generated over the past three years (Steven S, 2007).Also in Bhutan; The Nabji-Korphu Trail in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park in central Bhutan, the first pro-poor tourism pilot project of the national tourism strategy, was officially opened in November 2006 (Pelden D, 2007). The development of the trail, a 6-day, low altitude winter trek, enabled each village along the route to participate in revenue raising activities, such as provision of community camping sites, cultural programs, village guiding and provision of meals. Tour operators were compelled to use these local providers (Pelden D, 2007).One year on, socio-economic tourism impact analysis has sho wn that 84% of households received additional cash income from the 62 trekkers in the first season, contributing over US$38, 000 directly to the communities. Ninety eight percent of local respondents felt that tourism had brought tangible economic benefits and a range of other indirect benefits were also identified by respondents (Pelden D, 2007). The project involved the Department of Tourism (DOT), the Nature Conservation Division (NCD) and the Association of Bhutanese Tour Operators nd links with BhutanÃ¢â¬â¢s national tourism strategy and 9th Five Year Plan. SNV delivered technical assistance in support to development and implementation of the project (Pelden D, 2007). 6. Traveling Potentials of Iran In 2006 the Iranian Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization entered into a memorandum of understanding with the ravelingÃ¢â¬â¢s Issues Organization to establish the traveling Cooperative Association, which was entrusted with the task of attracting foreign tourists to nomadic regions of the country. Persian society was formerly a traveling one. United Nations Report, 2007, p. 100). Thus, travelers are considered to be a cultural treasure which needs to be preserved. The Department of Tourism Development in traveling Regions was thus established to provide economic development for the nomads by carrying out technical and infrastructural studies. Along with the Department, the traveling Tourism Institute undertakes measures in marketing, advertising and attracting foreign tourists by organizing tours in traveling areas, providing posters, catalogues, pictures and other advertising instruments.In addition, a special centre will be established in Tehran to provide an outlet for the sale of traveling products (United Nations Report, 2007, p. 100). The authorities hope that devising appropriate tourism programs for traveling regions will lead to an increase in the incomes of the traveling tribes, which would, in turn, raise their standard of living without har ming their social systems and traditional lifestyles (United Nations Report, 2007, p. 100). 7. Poverty in Iran Before analyzing about poverty line in Iran, this research provides some useful information about labor force, unemployment rate and inflation rates.Then only can start analyzing the figures and how pro-poor tourism as a new type of tourism can helps to reduce economic problems. [pic] Figure 2. 1: Sources: CIA World Fact book Ã¢â¬â September 17, 2009 Figure 2. 2: Sources: CIA World Fact book -September 17, 2009 Figure 2. 3: Sources: CIA World Fact book -September 17, 2009 In this season of presidential elections in Iran, a scenario much in demand is that poverty has increased under Ahmadinejad government. There are newspaper reports of research that offer evidence for just such a scenario, that seem influential but have not gone through the usual academic scrutiny (Javad D, 2009).A few months ago Salehi D, commentedÃ on another high profile poverty report that appeared last year in a journalÃ published byÃ the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran, using faulty methodology to show that poverty has increased. A study by researcher,Ã Professor Davoud S, of Sharif University of Technology in Iran states, the prominent Persian websiteÃ Ã¢â¬Å"RastakÃ¢â¬ Ã which is dedicated to Ã¢â¬Å"free market economicsÃ¢â¬ , isÃ a mark above the rest in academic rigor and therefore worth a closer look (Javad D, 2009).HeÃ estimates that more thanÃ one-thirdÃ of urban Iranians were in poverty in 2007 and, more shockingly, that this rate has increasedÃ during 2004-2007, the first three years of AhmadinjadÃ¢â¬â¢s administration. Salehi D, shockingly not because Mr. Ahmadinejad had promised to eradicate povertyÃ¢â¬âthat was hardly in the cardsÃ¢â¬âbut because in these four years Iran received about $200 billion from the rest of the world, some of them poor countries, from oil generated revenues. To learn that this inflow of money (natureÃ¢â¬â¢s gift) not only did not lift anyone out of poverty, it actually made the poor poorer is indeed shocking (Javad D, 2009).Professor Souri, who is a knowledgeable econometrician and knows his data well, but there are reasons why his study of poverty in Iran, like many others, should not be taken at face value. Let us lookÃ a closer look at how he arrives at his conclusions (Javad D, 2009). According to Professor Souri, first conclusion that he drafted explains about high incidence of poverty is really not much of a finding because of his assumption defines, everyone under $10 per day ($4. 40 in rural areas) as poor. This is a superior standard to which no developing country has been held as far as I know.ItÃ is 2/3 the poverty line in the United States and more than three times the threshold international agencies use to compare countriesÃ (the so-called $2 per day) (Javad D, 2009). Another widely reported study uses a poverty line of nearly 8 million Ã¢â¬Å"rials Ã¢â¬ (Iraninan Currency) for a family of five, which translates into $16 per person per day, which is higher than the US poverty line! Ã¢â¬Å"The problem with these studies is not their very high poverty thresholds, it is that they fail to warn their readers about how their poverty lines compares with those used in other countries.Publishing poverty results that use poverty thresholds that are not comparable across countries can confuse international readers and convince unsuspecting journalists in the west, as well as some with an ax to grind, that IranÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is a basket case (Javad D, 2009). A recent caseÃ in pointÃ of the latter group appears in the Ã¢â¬Å"NowruzÃ¢â¬ newspaper (IranÃ¢â¬â¢s daily newspaper), address by Israeli president Shimon Perez to Iranian people, in which he said:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"I see the suffering of the children [in Iran] and I ask myself, why? This is a country that is so richÃ¢â¬ You canÃ¢â¬â¢t invest the money in enriched uranium w hile telling the kids to stay a little hungry and a little ignorantÃ¢â¬ . Where he sees the suffering of IranÃ¢â¬â¢s children he does not explain; perhaps he is deducing it from studies that show poverty in Iran on a grand scale. The stronger point in SouriÃ¢â¬â¢s study is that poverty has increased during 2004-07. This finding should disappoint anyone who voted for Ahmadijead as a leader who would do something for the poor.It should anger people in oil importing nations who paid through the nose for IranÃ¢â¬â¢s oil in recent years, that the country took $200 billion from other (sometimes poorer) countries only to impoverish its own poor. Is the economic system in Iran so broken that its richer citizens are not satisfied with the $200 billion they generate from oil revenues and have to rob their own poor? 8. Challenges and issues of Tourism in Iran Economically and politically, tourism is always likely to be a minor industry relative to the oil and other sectors with the res ult that politicians have little interest in it.This lack of interest is even greater in relation to niches such as indigenous tourism. A counter argument to this reality, which does not receive widespread attention in Iran, is the employment creation potential of tourism (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007, pg 312). Oil and gas, notwithstanding their value to the country, generate relatively few benefits in employment terms. At the same time, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s major social and economic challenge is unemployment and under-employment among the youth.The under 25s constitute 75% of the total population and in some urban areas up to 50% of these young people do not have gainful employment. Tourism, despite its labor intense characteristics and geographical dispersion, is overlooked as a sector that can provide opportunity to this group. (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007, p312). Tourism in Iran is characterized by huge opportunity in terms of natural and cultural assets . At the same time, such opportunity is countered by what can be described as political ambivalence at best and antipathy at worst. Encouraging tourism in Iran is a highly contested issue between two main section in the government, one that views tourism as means to achieve economic benefits and modernize, the other that sees tourism as leading to globalization and thus threatening Islamic values and normsÃ¢â¬ (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007, pg313). The current political belief is highly apprehensive of foreign, non-faith influences and this situation acts contrary to interests seeking to develop tourism as a respectable and respected sector of the economy, particularly in rural and remote areas where indigenous tourism is likely to emerge.Rather than protect and support locally based tourism, the prevailing national ideology stifles local businesses from benefiting from cultural assets. The current environment is not, however, as overtly hostile to tourism as that whi ch existed in the immediate post-revolutionary era (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007). During the period of the Khomeini led government, the state destroyed some historical monuments in the manner of the Taliban in Afghanistan but, more recently, a degree of restraint has prevailed.However, the image of Iran in the international tourist market is almost unique in terms of negative media attention over a sustained period. Only Libya and perhaps Cuba have suffered similar long periods of extremely negative western media coverage. As an outcome, the core perception of Iran in the eyes of the world and in particular, in the eyes of potential tourists from North America and Europe has been of a troubled, strife torn country that should be avoided (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007).The Government in Iran does not help counter this image as tourism still tends to be subjugated to the Ã¢â¬Ëbig projectÃ¢â¬â¢ of promoting a religious Ã¢â¬â political agenda. For example, the August 2004 public execution of a 16-year old girl in the main street of a Caspian seaside resort, during the height of the tourist season received widespread national and international press coverage and blighted local tourism. Throughout the 1990s negative international media exposure was tempered by the hope that tourism development would be encouraged as part of an attempt to create an image of greater openness under President Khatami.But a constant barrage of damaging news items in the western media reinforced the old negative image (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007). After encouraging foreign tourists to watch the solar eclipse in Iran in 1999, a relatively isolated incident led to the usual western headlines: Ã¢â¬ËTourists kidnapped in IranÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ËThree Spaniards and one Italian were abducted by an armed gangÃ¢â¬â¢ (BBC, 1999a) and Ã¢â¬ËOfficial inquiry into Iran eclipse harassmentÃ¢â¬â¢ as a result of foreign tourists visiting to view the eclips e, particularly women, being subjected to hostile slogans and harassment by Islamic hardliners (BBC, 1999b) (Kevin O.G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007). While this seemed to be the case in five of the countries (Iraq, North Korea, Cuba, Syria and Libya), in Iran the journalist was Ã¢â¬Ëdetained and intimidatedÃ¢â¬â¢ as the cameras, tapes and tourist visa were viewed as the instruments of spies. The lack of foreign investment in tourism can also be seen as a major mainstream tourism challenge, especially in the hotel sector, in that both product and service are woefully inadequate for the contemporary international leisure and business market (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007, pg 314). Service standards in the major state hospitality businesses are among the poorest in the world, contrasting with the warmth and natural hospitality of service in small, private, indigenous businesses throughout the countryÃ¢â¬ (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007, p. 314). In marketin g perspective, international tourism to Iran is severely challenged by problems with respect to national image, relating to regional political concerns and also national social and cultural matters, notably the hijab requirement for women and the ban on alcohol.For example, there is evidence that some Chinese tour operators are unwilling to promote Iran because of the hijab requirement. Wider concerns about human rights issues are also a barrier to visitation and are further complicated by the challenges facing minority indigenous groups in Iran (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007). 9. Strategies relate to pro-poor tourism development According to one report, regular monitoring and evaluation to assess the benefits was difficult at the field level due to lack of communication, limits on transportation and on-going armed conflict in some districts.Similarly, frequent transfer of the government officers from the program districts presented a challenge to monitoring implementatio n of pro-poor tourism policies and strategies of TRPAP. Monitoring activities from the rural community level to the central level in order to sustain the pilot rural tourism models required a different evaluation strategy. (Kayastha Y, 2006) An evaluation tool known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Development WheelÃ¢â¬ was designed for communities to self-monitor their progress through discussions about changes in the community structure, development of enterprises and natural and cultural resources.The Ã¢â¬Å"Development WheelÃ¢â¬ is one of several evaluation tools that are part of an evaluation methodology known as the Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action (APPA). The APPA methodology focuses on having local people identify plans and activities that are positive, successful and strong so they can serve as a means to empower communities. When people used the Ã¢â¬Å"Development WheelÃ¢â¬ , it proved to be the most effective participatory way to evaluate progress of TRPAP at the progr am sites (Kayastha Y, 2006). On the other hand, WHL (World Hotel Links Corporation) make travelling easier for independent travelers.To find small local accommodation providers Independent travel is the fastest growing segment of the travel industry. A 2004 International Finance Corporation study on eco-lodges put the global independent traveler market at 50%. Many travelers use guidebooks and the Internet to select destinations and accommodation and rarely use tour packages. Thus they spend and leave more money locally. By serving smaller accommodation providers, WHL is making it easier for independent travelers to find interesting travel experiences, which in turn translates into more bookings for local SMEs (www. worldhotel-link. com).The researcher believes that such strategy analysis can be an important tool in furthering the research on pro poor tourism sustainability in Iran. 3. 1 Research Philosophy and General Method This chapter explains the methodology of the study which means the ways have been used for gathering the information and data and consequently how this study will analyze the data to find the best answer for the mentioned research questions. There is two methods of analyzing the data which are qualitative data analysis and quantitative data analysis . qualitative data typically involves words and quantitative data involves numbers.In this research, only Qualitative analysis is used by researcher to measure and analyze the data of the study. Specifically researcher attempt to use Discourse Analysis as types of qualitative analysis for this study, and that is why there will be definition of Qualitative Analysis and Discourse Analysis stated in this study. 3. 1. 1 Qualitative analysis Quantitative approaches are those where you make measurements using some relatively well-defined measurement tool. Assuming that the theory behind doing the measurement is valid, and then a well developed quantitative tool should give you information in which y ou can have confidence (www. sse. monash. edu. au). On the other hand, qualitative research methodologies are designed to provide the researcher with the perspective of target audience members through immersion in a culture or situation and direct interaction with the people under study. A qualitative Ã¢â¬Å"approachÃ¢â¬ is a general way of thinking about conducting qualitative research. It describes, either clearly or totally, the purpose of the qualitative research, the role of the researchers, the stages of research, and the method of data analysis (Trochim, 2006). Ã¢â¬Å¾Qualitative methods allow us to stay close to the experimental world.They are designed to ensure a close fit between the data and what people actually say and do. By observing people in their everyday lives, listening them talk about what is on their minds, and looking at the documents they produce, the qualitative researcher obtains first-hand knowledge of social life unfiltered through concepts, operational definitions, and rating scales? (Taylor & Bogdan,1984). According Marketing dictionary, Ã¢â¬Å"qualitative research is a research that deals with the quality, type, or components of a group, substance, or mixture, whose methods are applied to advertising audience research in order o determine the quality of audience responses to advertisingÃ¢â¬ (www. answers. com). Along with the above reference, according to the article published by DJS Research Ltd (2009), Qualitative research is used to help us understand how people feel and why they feel as they do. It is concerned with collecting information in detail and asking questions such as why do you say that? Depth interviews or group discussions are two common methods used for collecting qualitative information. http://www. marketresearchworld. net 3. 2 Discourse AnalysisThe focus of discourse analysis is any form of written or spoken language, such as a conversation or a newspaper article. The main topic of interest is the underly ing social structures, which may be assumed or played out within the conversation or text. It concerns the sorts of tools and strategies people use when engaged in communication, such as slowing one's speech for emphasis, use of metaphors, and choice of particular words to display affect, and so on. The investigator attempts to identify categories, themes, ideas, views, roles, and so on, within the text itself.The aim is to identify commonly shared discursive resources (shared patterns of talking). The investigator tries to answer questins such as how the discourse helps us understand the issue under study, how people construct their own version of an event, and how people use discourse to maintain or construct their own identity (Fulcher E, 2005). This research has been done to expose weaknesses and problems of Tourism development and planning specifically focus on pro-poor tourism and discuss about challenges and issues as well as opportunities for this industry.Moreover find out the reasons why tourism industry in Iran is not enough developed as compare to other developing countries with less attractions, facilities and potentials. The studies aim is to help to understanding the meaning and usage of pro-poor tourism and finding the challenges and analyze them and finding the reasons and issues which make this problems and by recommending and suggesting some action plans help to improve tourism policy and establishing new type of tourism industry which is not very new in the world and it is pro-poor tourism in Iran. . Process of Study Since this research is about pro-poor tourism in, Iran the study will focus more on Explanation of benefits of pro-poor tourism in Iran and the ways it will benefit the society and economy of the country. The research will be descriptive and then method of the study will be qualitative . after gathering the data will be analyzed on the content to find and recognize the issues and challenges of implementing the strategies and pl ans to find out the best effective strategies. Diagram 3. : Data Analysis process 3. 3. 1 Data collection (Notice and Bring Together) Study will began with collecting necessary information from reliable resources and identify the related data and bring those data together. Researchers collected some parts of the data which has from internet and from KDU College Library. Since this research have been doing in Malaysia, and there is no other possible ways for collecting the data from Iran, Internet played a very important role for finding the data very and necessary information.Beside internet and journals, interviews with professionals of the industry and also papers of pro-poor tourism researches which have been done by professors and lectures of KDU College and was presented in a pro-poor tourism conference in Malaysia (KDU College, 2009) will be used to help the study to analyze and strategies the plans which will be recommended by this study to improve tourism industry for the be tter future of the country. 3. 3. 2 AnalysisBase on the above studies research start to analyze the data and information which have been founded in the last stage to finding the correct answers for the research questions, and then planning for an action plan which will be use in next stage of study. The method of analyze which is using for analysis the data in this research, is qualitative method of analysis, and it is going to be evaluate by discourse analysis. 3. 3. 3 Action plan (Make Decision)In this part of study, according to the data we analyze and after finding challenges and issues in tourism industry, some recommendation and action plans will suggest to improve the tourism development and establishing pro-poor tourism in Iran. This study believes that the result of this research will be useful and helpful for building sustainable tourism policy in Iran for near future. 4. References Ashley. C and Haysom G, 2004, From Philanthropy to Different way of doing business: Ã¢â¬Å" Strategies and Challenges in Integrating Pro-Poor Approaches into Tourism BusinessÃ¢â¬ . Also available http://www. ropoortourism. org. uk/Publications%20by%20 partnership/propoor_business_ATLASpaper. pdf. Viewed 28/11/2009 Answer. com, Marketing Dictionary: Qualitative Research [Online] available http://www. answers. com/topic/qualitative-research-1. Viewed 14/12/2009 Caroline . A, 2006, For SNV East and Southern Africa, Ã¢â¬Å"How Can Governments Boost the Local Economic Impacts of TourismÃ¢â¬ . Viewed 29/11/2009 Dilys. R, 2001, Pro-Poor Tourism: Ã¢â¬Å"Harnessing the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Largest Industry for the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s PoorÃ¢â¬ , UK and Penny Urquhart Khanya, South Africa, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Viewed 1/11/2009 DJS Research Ltd: Ã¢â¬Å"What is Qualitative ResearchÃ¢â¬ [Online] available http://www. marketresearchworld. net/index. php? Itemid=64&id=10&option=com_content. Viewed 14/12/2009 Dorji. P, 2007, Pro-Poor Community-based Nature Tourism in Bhutan [Online] available http://www. propoortourism. org. uk/pptpar2007. pdf Viewed 12/12/2009 Encyclopedia of the Nations 2009 (Iran) Country over view; Ã¢â¬Å"Location and size, Population, Infrastructure, power, and communications, Transportation, Power, Telecommunications, IndustryÃ¢â¬ Also available: http://www. nationsencyclopedia. com/economies/Asia-and-the Pacific/Iran. tml. Viewed 3/12/2009 Fulcher. E, 2005, What is Discourse Analysis? [Online] available http://eamonfulcher. com/discourse_analysis. html. Viewed 14/12/2009 Gorman, O. K. D, McLellan, & L. R Baum, T. 2007, Tourism in Iran: Ã¢â¬Å"Central Control and IndignityÃ¢â¬ . In Tourism and Indigenous Peoples: Ã¢â¬Å"Issues and ImplicationsÃ¢â¬ . Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, p. 297-317 Viewed 8/11/2009 Iran Labor force (2009) [Online], available http://www. indexmundi. com/iran/labor_force. html Viewed 5/11/2009 Inflation rate in Iran (2009) [Online], available http://www. indexmundi. com/ira n/inflation_rate_(consumer_prices). tml Viewed 5/11/2009 Iran unemployment rate (2009) [Online], available http://www. indexmundi. com/iran/unemployment_rate. html Viewed 5/11/2009 Javad. D & Salehi. I, 2006. Revolution and redistribution in Iran: Ã¢â¬Å"Poverty and inequality, 25 years later, Department of Economics, Virginia TechÃ¢â¬ Viewed 4/11/2009 Javad. D, 2009, Ã¢â¬Å"Tyranny of numbers Claims of rising poverty inÃ IranÃ¢â¬ [Online] available http://djavad. wordpress. com/2009/03/30/playing-with-poverty-numbers Kevin O. G, McLellan L. R & Tom B, 2007, Tourism in Iran: Ã¢â¬Å"Central control and indignityÃ¢â¬ Viewed 3/12/2009Kayastha, Y, 2006 Ã¢â¬Å"Monitoring and Evaluation of a Pro-Poor Tourism Project in a Conflict SituationÃ¢â¬ , Conference Monitoring and Evaluation of Pro-Poor Tourism Policies for Sustainable Development, Saarbrucken, Germany, Also available: www. wuwien. ac. at/inst/iuw/fsnu/saarbruecken/papers/abstracts/Kayastha. pdf. Viewed 6/11/2009 Monas h University (2007): Qualitative and Quantitative Thinking [Online] available http://www. csse. monash. edu. au/~smarkham/resources/qual. htm Viewed 14/12/2009 Pro-poor tourism, UK, 2009 [Online] available www. propoortourism. org. uk Viewed 8/12/2009Pro-poor Brochure FINAL, 2006 [Online] available http://www. ifc. org/ifcext/mekongpsdf. nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/Propoor_Tourism/$FILE/Propoor_Tourism. pdf Viewed 9/11/2009 Pro-poor tourism; Annual register 2007, [Online] available http://www. propoortourism. org. uk/pptpar2007. pdf Viewed 9/11/2009 Steven S, 2007, The Mekong Tourism Development Project in the Lao PDR [Online] available www. ecotourismlaos. com and http://www. propoortourism. org. uk/pptpar2007. pdf Viewed 10/12/2009 Taylor, S & Bogdan, R 1984, Ã¢â¬Å"Introduction to Qualitative Research MethodÃ¢â¬ s, JohnWiley & sons, New York Viewed 30 April 2009 United Nations Report, 2007, New York, Ã¢â¬Å"Study on the Role of Tourism in Socio-Economic DevelopmentÃ¢â¬ Viewed 3/1 2/2009 United Nations ESCAP, Ã¢â¬Å"The Contribution of Tourism to Poverty AlleviationÃ¢â¬ , Tourism Review number 25 (New York: United Nations, 2005), p. 68-70. Viewed 5/11/2009 World hotel-link, 2009 [Online] available http://www. ifc. org/ifcext/mekongpsdf. nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/Propoor_Tourism/$FILE/Propoor_Tourism. pdf Viewed 12/12/2009 Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Chapter One: Introduction Chapter Two: Literature Review Chapter three: Methodology
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