Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Diabetes Mellitus: Causes And Effect

Diabetes Mellitus: Causes And Effect Diabetes Mellitus is considered one of the major health threats diseases that affect people nowadays. It affects both genders male and female within different age group. However, it is mainly occurs as a result of insulin secretion disorder. Every person is different, so Diabetes Mellitus treatment will be tailored to needs. There are lists of common drugs prescribed in Bahrain clinics which are along with a proper diet and exercise help in controls high glucose level in the blood and also help in reduce complication of Diabetes Mellitus such as kidney damage, eye blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes Mellitus also reduces the risk of a stroke and heart attacks. Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic medical condition, mean in controlled it is restore life time. There are two major type of Diabetes Mellitus known as type 1(IDDM) or Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus and type 2 (NIDM). This topic was selected to obtain more details regardin g this disease to help people in elevate their knowledge and awareness about Diabetes Mellitus prevention to reduce its complication. This paper on Diabetes Mellitus in both genders will include general information of the disease, symptoms, causes and risk factors of Diabetes Mellitus. Finally, the effects, treatment and prevention of the disease will also be considered in this paper. Types of Diabetes Mellitus There are two main kinds of Diabetes Mellitus are type 1(IDDN), type 2 (NIDM), and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus considered as a hired type only during pregnancy. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes or Juvenile diabetes, it is usually diagnosed in children and teenagers. In this kind of diabetes, the beta cell of the pancreas failed in produce insulin because the bodyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s immune system has attacked and destroyed them. Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes taking insulin shots or using an insulin pump, diet healthy food, regular exercise, control blood pressure and cholesterol. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 diabetes, formerly known adult-onset or non insulin dependent diabetes most common kind of diabetes. People can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even childhood. This form of diabetes usually starts with insulin resistance, a condition in which fat, muscle, and liver cells do not utilized insulin properly. At first, the pancreas adjusts with the added demand by producing more insulin. In time, however, it loses the ability to secrete enough insulin in response to meals. People who are overweight and inactive are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Treatment includes taking diabetes medicines, control healthy diet, regular exercise, control blood pressure and cholesterol, and taking aspirin daily. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Some women develop gestational diabetes late in pregnancy peroid. Although this Kind of diabetes usually disappear after the baby is born, a woman who has had gestational diabetes is at risk to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Gestational diabetes is caused by the hormones of pregnancy or deficiency of insulin. Signs and symptoms The early symptoms of untreated diabetes are related to elevated blood glucose levels, and loss of glucose in the urine. Increase glucose in the urine cause excessive urine output which lead to dehydration. Dehydration causes increased of thirst and water consumption. The inability of insulin to perform normally has effects on protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin is an anabolic hormone, that is, encourages storage of fat and protein. Insulin deficiency leads to weight loss despite an increase in appetite. Some un treated diabetes patients also complain of fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Patients with diabetes are easily developing infections of the bladder, skin, and vaginal areas. Fluctuations in blood glucose levels can cause blurred vision. Extremely elevation of glucose levels can lead to lethargy and coma. The inability of insulin to perform normally has effects on protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Causes and effects of drugs for diabetes Diabetes mellitus is major health problem in whole world nowadays. It has been affecting both sexes; males and females with in all age group. Infarct, there are certain causes that lead people to use anti high per glycemia medications for type 2 and human insulin for type1, like heredity, social status and psychological condition. In addition, there are also certain effects resulted from misused of diabetes drug such as complications of diseases. To begin with, there are several causes that lead people to become diabetes mellitus. .First of all, many people get diabetes mellitus because of heredity. For example, genetic and hormonal problem lead people to get type2 and specially type 1 diabetes mellitus. The life style of some people also plays a role in being diabetes mellitus type2.If people do not practice enough or proper exercise and they are not aware of the quality and quantity of the food, they will certainly end up in raising their blood glucose. Last but not least, the psychological condition has a great influence on some people to become diabetes mellitus specially those who suffer from certain emotional or stress problems. As a result of above, there are certain effects that might result from being diabetes mellitus. To start with, diabetes people always suffer from some diseases such as blindness to, kidney failure, disease atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and strokes. Genetic Risk Factor Diabetes Mellitus has grater risk among type 1 (Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus) whose parent or relative side have history of type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), (David K, 2008). Social Risk Factor The life style of some people also plays a role in being diabetes mellitus type2.If people do not practice enough or proper exercise and they are not aware of the quality and quantity of the food. There also another risk factor which is over weight or obesity which play a big role in Diabetes Mellitus especially type 2 (NIDM). Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Risk Factor Women who have gestational diabetes during their pregnancy are more prone to get diabetes Mellitus type 2 (NIDM) in future. And complication of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus lead to get big birth baby weight, defect of lung surfactant which cause a respiratory distress syndrome , shoulder dystocia , and cesarean suction delivery to prevent further complication of both mother and baby. Diabetes Mellitus diagnostics Test The fasting blood glucose test is the way to diagnose diabetes after the person has fasten overnight for eight hours, a sample of blood collection for analysis .Normal fasting blood glucose is lower than (100 mg/dl) which call A/C sugar and if A/C sugar is higher than 126 mg/dl on two or more test on different days is diagnosed as diabetes. Then had breakfast and after two hours second blood sample which known P/C sugar or random sugar , a blood glucose level around 200( mg/dl) or high indicate as diabetes. HBA1C Test This test is usedfor diagnosis, an elevated level of glucose irreversibly bound hemoglobin (termed glycated hemoglobin or HbA1c) of 6.0% or higher is known as abnormal finding by most hospitals laboratories. HBA1C is a therapy and treatment test which reflects blood picture of glucose level over preceding ninety days is the average lifetime or red blood cell which consists of hemoglobin; some doctors request this type of test during diagnosis to evaluate changes of HBA1C, the range recommended for glycated hemoglobin is 6.5% in diabetes patient. Complication of Diabetes Mellitus Kidney Complications in diabetes Diabetes affect kidney and it normal function, the urine test done to measure the quantity of the protein (albumin) in urine that is to determine kidney function affected by the especially kidney filteration, presence albumin is early indicator of kidney complication is a nephropathy. the regular checkup especially for type one diabetes mellitus after five years from diagnosis and for type two at the time of diagnosis and if the test show presence of protein in the urine preventive measures should be considered . Hypertension and related complication in diabetes Most diabetes clients complain of high blood pressure, elevation of blood pressure stresses the cardiovascular system, by causesing some symptoms which helped to increase development of diabetic complications such as kidney and eye. High blood pressure diagnose by measuring blood pressure on a regular basis. Normal reading is 130/80. Diabetic people who are not suffer of kidney complication to reduce blood pressure 120/75 as well as for people complain of kidney complication. Cardiovascular Complications There are certain factors helped to increase cardiovascular complication such as smoking cigarettes, uncontrol blood pressure, highperlipidemia and alcohol consumption. Lifestyle stresses increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which can cause myocardial infarction (heart attack), angina (chest pain), stroke, and death. Retinopathy Complications It is amicrovascular disease with no signs or symptoms, and I is common disease cause blindness in diabetes mellitus both types 1 and type 2.which detected by retinal examination, by proper treatment, well control blood glucose level and early detection help to prevent loss of vision. Neuropathy Complictions It is a microvascular disease as a result of nerve ischemia, the nerve function affect due to increase glucose level in the blood. There are different types such as autonomic, neuropathy mononeuropathy, radiculopathy and symmetric polyneuropathy (with small- and large-fiber variants). The common type is the symmetric polyneuropathy which affect distal hand and feet. It manifests as, paresthesisa, dysesthesias, orapainless of sense touch and vipration. And the symptoms of lower extremities as follow cause foot traumma froil-fitting shoes and abnormal weight bearing which cause foot ulceration and infection or fracture. (Jill. P, 2007). Treatments Controlling blood sugar is necessary to avoid future complications of Diabetes Mellitus there are certain ways of treatments help to control elevation of blood glucose level will start now with medication that used in diabetes mellitus management first of all is: Insulin therapy Insulin is use as treatment in both types of diabetes mellitus especially for type one which works as insulin replacement therapy. There are several types of insulin help in control high blood sugar , the most common types such as Actropid , NPH , Lantus and Novopen insulin . And the more popular types of oral hypoglycemia like for example tablet Metaformin 500 mg and 1000 mg, tablet Dionail 5 mg and 10 mg and table 30 mg. Exercise Therapy Program Physical activity helps in transportation of sugar in to the body cell, which is use for energy the more use of exercise help to reduce high blood sugar, and makes the insulin receptors or cells more sensitive to the hormone thus improves the utilization of available glucose more over it is also improve blood circulation and cardiovascular fitness, reduced blood hyperlipedemia. Physical activity also promotes weight reduction and help to reduce tension and stress. Foot Care Prevention Program Diabetes Mellitus affect blood circulation which leads reduction of blood supply to lower extremities and that change put the feet at high risk to develop potential complications. foot complications are more common regarding diabetes mellitus patient ,for that health care providers instruct diabetes patients to do home self examination to their foot. Foot Self Exam Advise Diabetes Mellitus people to examine their feet daily, full feet and especially between the toes. And to look for any cut wound, ulcer and broken skin or change color this examination can be done during bath time. A mirror can help in examination or one of family member. In conclusion there are certain causes and risk factors that lead to diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem, and considered to be silent illnesses which affect all body parts .Therefore people should be aware their illness and it is complication and also identified the types of diabetes mellitus with some common types of medication. Finally, show also the causes and effects of the disease and how to diagnose the disease.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Reality Television Essay -- TV Television Reality Show Essays

Reality Television In today's society, Reality Television plays an important position in people's everyday lives. The reality television programs of today are popular because of the variety of film conventions (eg. audio, visual and symbolic codes) and the values and attitudes used to construct the viewer?s response. Two good examples of reality television programs are The Apprentice and Queer Eye for the Straight Guy. In the episode of The Apprentice, 'The Price is Height', wealth is promoted through the values and attitudes of today's society to construct the viewer's response. This program promotes that wealth is acquired through success, and success comes with long-term hard work. Wealth is promoted throughout the episode in various forms. These include having the episode produced in the very successful big-business city of New York, USA, where much of what happens affects what happens throughout the US and around the world, the 'Trump World Tower', 'Trump Plaza Hotel', and 'Mar-a-Lago' resort located in Palm Beach, Florida. If different audiences viewed the episode of The Apprentice, each audience would interpret the values and attitudes of wealth differently. If a mature audience viewed the episode, they would interpret wealth as greed. If a younger audience viewed the episode, they would interpret wealth as a desire and an ambition to achieve. The suggested target audience for this episode w ould be young adults, as the values and attitudes of wealth, would liked to be gained by those who are beginning in the business field. In an episode of Queer Eye of the Straight Guy, ?Never too late to celebrate?, wealth is achieved through a person?s area of expertise, where the person is most likely to succeed highly in it. Wealth has been promoted throughout the episode in different ways. This includes the expensive suits and clothing from designer brands such as ?Prada? and ?Levis? and the episode was produced in New York City, USA. If different audiences were to view the episode, each would interpret the values and attitudes of wealth, in different ways. If an older mature audience were to view the episode, they would interpret wealth as a wonderful thing, as five gay men, are using their time, money and areas of expertise to makeover a straight (non-gay) person. If a younger audience were to view the episode, they would interpret wealth as a good... ...f The Apprentice, the footage is collated to make the female contestants appear as sexual objects by focusing on their legs, tight clothing, cleavage and body movements and projects the males as being more capable and successful in business. So even if the ?camera never lies?, the use of camera angles, particular shots and the way the footage is edited can play a huge part in influencing what the viewer thinks. It is all about ?how? it is shown to the viewers. The reality television shows of The Apprentice and Queer Eye for the Straight Guy are popular due to the values and attitudes promoted through wealth and through the filming conventions of audio, visual and symbolic codes. However, the impact on audiences depends on how they are presented. Promotion of one form of success and wealth included ?Trump World Tower?, expensive suits from ?Prada? and ?Hugo Boss?, ?Mar-a-Lago? luxury resort, etc. by The Apprentice and another form of success and wealth presented by Queer Eye for the Straight Guy was improvement of appearance, enrichment of personal life and lifestyle and the two reality television episodes were produced in New York City, the hub of business culture and trade.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

China’s Threat to the United States Economy

For the last twenty eight years, China has been quickly growing into one of the largest economies in the world. China has accomplished this feat, in part, by radically changing their policies on trade and free market interactions with other countries. During this process, China has bought approximately one hundred trillion dollars of United States debt in the form of Treasury bills, notes, bonds, and Inflation Protected Securities (Amadeo). This debt has given China leverage against the United States which has enabled China to keep the value of the United States dollar high, while keeping the value of the Chinese yuan low. As the inflation of the dollar continues to negatively affect the United States economy, China has become an economic superpower. Recently, concern has risen that China is a threat to the economy of the United States. China has become a perceived threat to the United States economy because of the increasing trade deficit between the two countries, the ability to undercut production costs of similar products produced in the United States, and the amount of leverage that China has over the United States due to the amount of money that has been lent by the Communist nation. Trade deficits between countries are caused when a country imports more goods from one country than they export to that same country. In the case of the United States and China, there is approximately a two hundred and twenty five billion dollar trade deficit (Prassad). The United States imports nearly three hundred and thirty five billion dollars worth of goods and services from China, while exporting only a little more than eighty billion dollars worth of goods and services to the growing economic power (CRS). The disparity in trade between the two countries results in a flooding of Chinese made products that force their United States competitors to lower production costs. In many cases, lowering production cost of domestic products results in either the closing of these businesses or the outsourcing of jobs. Both of these cause the loss of jobs in the United States. One of the reasons that the United States has been unable to lessen the trade deficit is China’s ability to undercut production costs of similar products made in the United States (Elwell 27) China’s overall cost of living is much lower than their United States counterparts (Amadeo). Therefore, they are able to produce goods and hire labor at a much lower price. One of the main reasons for this economic statistic is China’s population. It is nearly three times that of the United States, giving China a much larger work force to produce electronics, automobiles, and clothing at a fraction of the United States production cost (CIA). Not only does this negatively affect employment in the United States, but it also impacts their ability to compete on the global market. Industries that involve manufacturing, such as automobiles, computers, and electronics have decreased by thirty four percent since 1998 (Prasad). This has a negative effect on the amount of goods that the United States can export. Finally, China has gained a certain amount of leverage affecting the United States economic policies, due in part, to the amount of money that China has loaned the United States. Starting in the early 1980’s, every time the value of the dollar would drop, China would buy Treasury bills, notes, bonds, and Inflation Protected Securities to keep the dollar stable in value (Elwell 36). After nearly thirty years of this practice, the United States has come to depend on Chinese loans to maintain its currency value and China has come to own a majority of United States debt. This imbalance of debt has created a number of different scenarios that could bring about potential political and economic problems for the United States. China could theoretically cash in their treasuries and bonds tomorrow, which would cause the United States dollar to suffer massive inflation. While this scenario is not necessarily in China’s best interest right now, the possibility should concern the United States government. Instead, China could use their debt leverage to impact foreign trade policies and more importantly domestic political policies that budget how the United States spends its tax dollars (Elwell 22). China has become a perceived threat to the U. S. economy because of the increasing trade deficit between the two countries, their ability to undercut production costs of similar products produced in the United States, and the amount of leverage that China has over the United States due to amount of money that has been lent by China. Although the United States has taken steps to close the trade deficit, such as convincing China to raise prices on their exports, there is still a considerable gap (Prasad). The United States government continues to print money that they simply can’t afford, therefore, relying even more heavily on China sustaining the value of their currency. Unless the United States is able to close the trade deficit and regain control of our economic flexibility, the problems caused by foreign countries owning our debt will remain eminent.

Friday, January 3, 2020

History of Social Work - 1714 Words

The development of Social Work in the United Kingdom, United States and Australia has developed and evolved, influencing people and professionals across the world. Social Work has advanced through welfare policies and programs with significant historical changes occurring and a shift in religious and political views allowing these changes to benefit members of society and address social issues. Key events such as the Elizabethan Poor Law, the industrial revolution, the first charity organised society (COS) and the settlement movement were established mainly in the United Kingdom however similar models were then adapted in the United States and Australia. Pioneering members of society helped advocate for human rights, social reform†¦show more content†¦By the end of 1860, it was becoming apparent that outdoor relief was draining community resources as poverty increased throughout the United Kingdom and other forms of support were needing to be created as people were becoming aware that it was not just a case of the poor seeking relief because of their character, but more so of the conditions they were living in (Dulmus amp; Sowers, 2012). The settlement movement became another key feature in establishing Social Work in a bid for society to focus on the causes of poverty rather than the individual. This required the volunteer or social worker to live in the houses with the residents, â€Å"Neighbourhood based houses were established in a bid to bring people together from different socio-economic and cultural backgrounds to share knowledge, skills and values† (Chenoweth amp; McAuliffe, 2012, p. 35). In 1869, Octavia Hill focused establishing support housing in London for the poor and organising groups and activities. Octavia strongly believed that â€Å"we were to help the poor help themselves by empowering people with rights to encourage responsibility† (Smith, 2008). Settlement houses soon established the first by Samuel and Henrietta Barnett in 1884 in London, named Toynbee Hall. The United States were quick to follow in this new development as Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Star established Americaâ€⠄¢s, Hull House in 1889. By 1890, settlements were known as an important method in researching and analysing socialShow MoreRelatedHistory of Social Work18530 Words   |  75 PagesInstitute of Social Sciences Compiled by S.Rengasamy-History of Social Welfare / Social Work Contents History of Social Welfare/ Social Work ..........................................................................................................................3 The need to understand history of social work .............................................................................................................3 Framework to understand History of Social Welfare / Social Work ........Read MoreThe History Of Social Work Practice1530 Words   |  7 PagesIn this essay I will be giving a brief introduction to the history of social work practice, by introducing the laws that contributed to its development. Explaining how the sub divisions divide into specialism s within the variety of social work settings, using both public and private sectors to show understanding. Also, demonstrate knowledge of different legislation that has been introduced to social work practice over the past 25 years and why it is used in particular areas. Then to finalise usingRead MoreSocial Work And Welfare History1477 Words   |  6 PagesSocial Work/ Welfare History In 1906, in-school social work programs were integrated into New York City schools with hopes to bridge the gaps between the schools and communities in which they served. Since then in-school social workers have become more than just school and community liaisons but also the caseworkers, confidants, youth program advocates, as well as truancy reporters. In 1946, the National School Lunch Act was established and signed into law by President Harry S. Truman. This policyRead MoreThe And Social Work Welfare History1085 Words   |  5 Pages In this paper I will discuss a variety of aspects related to my agency, such as structure, social policy, and social work welfare history that empowers families’ lives. This semester I have been given the opportunity to work, as an intern, at Head Start Nacogdoches following a social worker understanding the importance of being efficient in my future career. At Head Start my job is to observe, take notes, and ask questions to my field instructor Ms. Celena Garrett in understand the importance ofRead MoreSocial Work History : Midterm3357 Words   |  14 PagesSocial Work History: Midterm Grace Gowdy Boston University 1. â€Å"Progressivism† has been characterized by authors studied in this course as 1) an historical era/political movement, 2) a culture within the social work profession, 3) a set of virtues social workers should strive for and 4) an inheritor (and possible alternative to) the radical tradition within social work. Describe and discuss each of these varieties of progressivism in terms of their impact on OR implications for promotingRead MoreThe History of Social Work in the Caribbean3239 Words   |  13 PagesSocial work and Social Welfare has been with us from as far back as the 1600s and it has always been, and has continued to be a response to human needs. In order to understand its historical development, it is necessary to examine the significant factors, which has influenced its evolution. It can be said however that factors such as the establishment of the Elizabethan poor laws, the emancipation of slavery and the social unrest which resulted in the 1937 riots, played a momentous role in the developmentRead MoreThe History Of Social Work In Vietnam. Each Country Has1625 Words   |  7 PagesThe History of Social Work in Vietnam Each country has a unique history for the development of social work. While social work was first started in Amsterdam and later introduced in the United States in the late 1800’s, other countries are starting to develop social work practice more recently (Zastrow, 2010). At the completion of multiple decades of war, Vietnam could start implementing social work practice. It is important for foreigners who plan to work in Vietnam to be aware of the history ofRead MoreSocial Work As A Practice And The History Of The Reformers That Helped Create The Very Career Itself Essay1007 Words   |  5 PagesThis paper will include a description of social work as a practice and the history of the reformers that helped create the very career itself. In this section, I will include topics such as the mission, goals, and purpose of a social worker and attributes of the profession. Next, I will discuss the definition and the elements of General Practice in the field. This section will includ e examples from the lifestyle paper written previously in the year. For this paper, I was required to visit a placeRead MoreDiscipline and Punish: a Critical Review. This Is a Summary of Michel Foucaults Seminal Work on the History of Criminal Punishment and Social Discipline as It Transformed from Punitive to Correctional Models During the2913 Words   |  12 Pages------------------------------------------------- Discipline and Punish: a critical review ------------------------------------------------- This is a summary of Michel Foucaults seminal work on the history of criminal punishment and social discipline as it transformed from punitive to correctional models during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------Read MoreKarl Marx s Theories Of History And The Theory Of Human Nature Essay1714 Words   |  7 Pageswill aim to discuss and determine with reference to Marx’s deterministic theory of history and the theory of human nature, if human beings are essentially the product of socioeconomic forces. In addition to one criticism of his theory of human nature. Firstly, this paper will explain Karl Marx’s deterministic theory of history and the theory of human nature. According to Karl Marx’s deterministic theory of history, human society is determined by the material conditions. Marx was heavily influenced