Sunday, May 24, 2020
The Effect of the Octopus Watch on the Task Completion of Self-Care Skills in Children with Autism - Free Essay Example
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1903 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/02/14 Category Medicine Essay Level High school Tags: Autism Essay Did you like this example? Independence is the ultimate goal for the majority of individuals in our society. For many, this goal is attained sometime between 18 to 30 years of age. However, for other individuals, such as those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), full independence may never be attained; the aim then becomes to minimize the dependency on caregivers and providers. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Effect of the Octopus Watch on the Task Completion of Self-Care Skills in Children with Autism" essay for you Create order According to Shattuch, Narendorf, Cooper, Sterzing, Wagner and Taylor (2012), about 80% of adults with autism live at home and only 6% have paid jobs. These statistics are alarming, clearly indicating that greater efforts are needed to design and use effective interventions that teach long-lasting functional daily living skills to individuals with disabilities. Functional living skills are those necessary to be an independent and productive individual in society (Hong, Davis, Neely, Ganz, Morin, Ninci, Boles, 2017); they include a variety of skills, from toileting and personal care to grocery shopping, banking and social skills (Ayres, Mechling, Sansosti, 2013). Given some of the core characteristics of ASD, such as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors, deficits in language and communication skills, and poor attending skills, individuals with autism heavily depend on others to accomplish daily living skills (Hong et al., 2017). According to Hume, Loftin, and Lantz (2009) there are three particular factors of ASD that hinder the acquisition and maintenance of skills: prompt dependence, initiation, and generalization of skills. Prompt dependence refers to learners relying on their instructors or caregivers to help them complete a task (even after they have already learned the task) (Mays Heflin, 2011). Initiation refers to the lack of motivation to initiate different tasks, such as chores, homework or even social interactions and, again, reliance on others to get started; Last, generalization refers to the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to demonstrate learned skills with untrained stimuli and people, as well as in untrained settings (Hume et al., 2009). Hume et al. (2009) also reviewed three intervention strategies that have been effective in increasing independence in individuals with autism: Self- monitoring, individual work systems and video- modeling. These interventions are believed to be successful because they all focus on shifting stimulus control from continuous adult prompts during tasks to alternative stimuli. In self-monitoring, the individual learns to discriminate and record the occurrence or absence of a particular target behavior. In this intervention, the stimulus control remains within the individual; that is, the learner is the one who attends to his own behavior and determines if the behavior meets the requirement for reinforcement. When teaching self-monitoring skills (i.e., ability to monitor oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own behavior) in individuals with autism, four steps are followed: (1) creating an operational definition for the target behavior, (2) determining reinforcers, (3) choosing a self-management method or device, and (4) teaching the learner to use the selected method (Hume et al., 2009). This strategy has been effective in changing a variety of behaviors seen in individuals with ASD. For example, when monitoring their own behaviors, individuals have improved on-task behavior (Callahan Rademacher, 1999), reduced stereotypic behavior (Koegel Koegel, 1990), increased pro-social beh aviors (Morrison, Kamps, Garcia, Parker, 2001), and, most importantly for the purpose of this study, increased the performance of daily living skills without prompts from the caregiver or provider (Pierce Schreibman, 1994). With self-monitoring, the learner has greater autonomy and responsibility, which reduces the dependence on prompts from others in their environment (Hume et al., 2009). Similarly, an individual work system is a teaching strategy that highlights visual supports and focuses on reducing the recurrent need for teacher prompts and feedback and increasing independent functioning (Hume et al., 2009). In individual work systems, the learner practices mastered skills in a visually organized setting. In this setting, the work system transmits four pieces of information: (1) the target task the learner is supposed to complete, (2) how much work the individual needs to do, (3) how the learner will know when he/she is finished with the task, and (4) what to do once the task has been completed. This strategy uses a left-to-right system where the learner completes all of the activities placed on their left and then moves them to the right (i.e., the finished pile) as they complete them. In this intervention, the stimulus control shifts from the caregiverÃ¢â¬â¢s or providerÃ¢â¬â¢s prompts to the visual stimuli presented. Video modeling is another visual strategy that promotes teaching different skills with minimal prompts from others. This is the third intervention reviewed by Hume et al. (2009). With video modeling, the individual learns a skill by imitating the behavior modeled by another person in a video. This technique is appealing to individuals with ASD because it helps them attend to relevant information required for the task while blocking out distractions. Furthermore, watching videos is a pleasurable activity for most individuals with ASD (Hume et al., 2009). One strategy not mentioned by Hume et al. (2009) that has also been effective in promoting independent skills and reducing prompt dependency is the use of visual activity schedules (VAS) (Koyama Wang, 2011). This approach utilizes visual cues to teach the learner a sequence of activities or tasks independently (McClannahan Krantz, 1999). The purpose of activity schedules is to give the learner a visual cue of what will come next in his or her schedule. The visual cues are pictures, photographs or textual prompts related to the task. For example, an image of a sink would signify it is time to wash hands and an image of a bed would represent time to go to sleep. Parallel to the interventions mentioned earlier, stimulus control can be transferred from the caregiver or provider to the picture. Once the learner masters responding to the picture cues alone, the pictures can then steer behavior in the absence of a caregiver (Koyama Wang, 2011). Outcomes of existing research have shown that people with disabilities can learn to use picture cues so effectively that they can even follow successfully multiple long behavior chains (e.g., washing hands, brushing teeth and then dressing). These results are significant because they indicate that VAS can be a useful strategy in reducing prompt dependency in individuals with disabilities, while promoting independence. Furthermore, activity schedules are not limited to particular ages, intellectual functioning or diagnosis and can be adapted and individualized for all persons (Koyama Wang, 2011). A review of the literature by Knight, Sartini, and Spriggs (2015) examined 16 studies to determine if visual activity schedules can be considered an evidence-based practice. Interventions are believed to be evidence-based when they have consistently shown to be effective in at least five research studies, three geographical locations, and with a minimum of 20 participants (Knight et al., 2015). Based on the studies reviewed, the authors determined that visual activity schedules meet the criteria to be called an evidence-based practice and can be used to maintain, expand and generalize a variety of skills in multiple settings. Further, their results suggested that VAS can be used to (1) teach on-task behavior and appropriate transitions, (2) decrease latency to begin tasks, and (3) decrease the need of prompts during transitions. Similar to the results of Knight et al. (2015), in a literature review by Koyama and Wang (2015), they found that activity schedules increased engagement and on-task behavior. They also suggested that one reason why disruptive behaviors may decrease with activity schedules is that as individuals allocate more time on on-task behavior less time is allocated to maladaptive behaviors. One caveat they discovered from different studies is that when the researchers removed the activity schedules, on-task performance declined to baselines rates. However, as soon as they represented the activity schedules, performance increased back to post-treatment levels. This finding is important because the mode of presentation may have higher significance than we think; in other words, the way in which the visual schedule is presented to the individual (e.g., binder, book, Velcro strips, or portable device) may be a crucial variable in determining the success the individual will have with following th e schedule. Due to the previously mentioned deficits observed in individuals with autism such as stereotypic behaviors and poor attending skills, activity schedules that require the individual to carry a binder or book with multiple pictures may be cumbersome. In a situation where the child loses one picture from the schedule or misplaces the entire binder, then he/she will not be able to follow independently the activities scheduled in his day. Thus, other devices that are easier to carry and can be easily accessed may be better alternatives to individuals with attending deficits. In the last years, a couple of studies have embedded activity schedules within different portable devices including a tablet and an iPod touch (Brodhead, Courtney, Thaxton, (2018); Carlile, Reeve, Debar, 2013). For example, Brodhead et al. (2018) evaluated the effects of using a visual activity schedule embedded within an iPad to vary the play across different applications in three children with autism (age range 4-9). The activity schedule was a six-slide presentation created with the keynote application (similar to PowerPoint). The first page showed the participantÃ¢â¬â¢s name and the second through the fourth page depicted two pictures on each slide: one of a timer application and one of the application they had to play during that slide. The fifth slide showed the picture of the YouTube application and a timer, and the sixth slide said, Ã¢â¬Å"The end.Ã¢â¬ Brodhead et al. (2018) used manual guidance to teach each participant how to follow the schedule and did not provide any praise or tangible reinforcers during teaching sessions. Nonetheless, they programmed the YouTube application to be at the end of each sequence to potentially serve as a reinforcer for the completion of the previous three tasks. Results showed that all participants varied their play from one application during baseline to an average of four applications during treatment. In the same way, Carlile et al. (2013) taught four children (ages 8-12) with autism to independently organize their spare time by using a visual activity schedule embedded within an iPod touch and in the absence of a supervisor or reinforcement. The researchers added five pictures (of different activities) to the photo icon on the iPod touch, and the participants followed the schedule in the order of the pictures. Similar to Brodhead et al. (2018), Carlile et al. (2013) used manual guidance to teach the participants how to complete the activity schedule; however, they faded prompts using a progressive-time delay procedure instead of using graduated guidance. They also used nine different levels to fade the proximity of the experimenter and thin the schedule of reinforcement from FR-2 (i.e., reinforcer delivered after every two correct responses) to no reinforcement at all. Before the intervention, none of the participants were able to correctly follow any of the components in the ac tivity schedule provided on the iPod Touch. After the intervention, the percentage of correctly completed components increased from 0% to an average of 95% in all participants. The percentage of intervals scored on-task also increased for all participant from an average of 15% to an average of 90%. Both studies, Brodhead et al. (2018) and Carlile (2013) demonstrated that activity schedules were effective in increasing on-task behavior, the percentage of correctly completed steps and improving independence altogether. To date, there have not been any published studies examining the use of activity schedules embedded within a watch to increase the task completion of self-care skills in children with autism. Thus, the present study will assess the effect of the Octopus Watch on the task completion of three self-care skills in four children diagnosed with ASD. The dependent variables will include the latency and duration of completing tasks and the percentage of correctly completed activity schedule components in the absence of a caregiver or provider.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 8:46 PM
Monday, May 18, 2020
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 637 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/07/30 Category Food Essay Level High school Tags: Organic Food Essay Did you like this example? Organic foods avoid the use of pesticides, GMOs and man-made fertilizer for a healthier product and healthier environment. Farms are getting polluted everyday with the use of fertilizer, which in turn pollutes the water system. Organic foods are a step up throughout our society as it benefits the livestock and our environment, but organic foods might not be as healthy as some believe. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Organic foods and why it is the better option" essay for you Create order In 2009 the FSA (Food Standards Agency) published a report on the benefits of organic and conventional produce. The report concluded that organic foods did not provide any significant health benefits than non-organic foods, but it did have more vitamins, minerals, and omega 3s. In consideration, Organic is a better option because of vitamins, our improved livestock and our agriculture. To begin with, organic foods can provide healthy vitamins and nutrients that you might not find in non-organic foods. Researchers from Stanford University did a decade long study where they concluded that the antioxidant compounds found in organic foods such as flavonoids, and carotenoids can be linked to protecting cells from the effects of aging and damage that can lead to cancer (Citation). Although these studies are being done, there is still not a clear production system in place. Some organic foods will receive less fertilizer, and some wont. The difference is not that big when it comes to non-organic food, although the more fertilizer used can make foods like produce grow larger but in turn dilute the nutrients. Even with all the studies it is hard to differentiate the nutritional quality, especially when you think about what Americans should eat, and what they are consuming. Organic production is also one of many options available for livestock producers. There is a little bit more of a clear system in place when it comes to Organic livestock. For example, any livestock labeled organic must originate from an animal that has already been managed under organic operations. A livestock producer must maintain living conditions that accommodate the natural behavior and health of the animal. In turn, these animals can live out a happier life. Organic livestock producers also must maintain and manage manure, so it does not contribute to the contamination of crops, soil, or water. Records of these practices are kept for five years and must maintain compliance with the organic food protection act (citation). Lastly, there are many benefits to the agriculture of Organic farming. Agricultural interventions aim to produce quality products without the contamination of soil or other pesticides. Soil building practices have become essential to organic producing. The length of time that the soil is exposed to erosive forces is decreased, soil biodiversity is increased, and nutrient losses are reduced, helping to maintain and enhance soil productivity(citation). Water is also affected by the use of pesticides that enter the ground water systems. Conversion to organic practices can result in less pollution overall in the ecosystem. In conclusion, some can argue that it really does not matter if their food is organic or not. With a little more research, we all can be more educated and in turn provide ourselves more nutrients that our bodies may be missing. We can also look at the practices of where our livestock comes from to see if we are getting the best product that we need to give our bodies the best nutrient source possible. and also knowing that the records of these organic livestock practices are kept to see the facts. Our agriculture is also suffering more than ever, and it is best we use better judgement, so we can continue to live with healthy soil in the ground and cleaner water to drink. Organic food does seem like the clearer option, but it all depends on who you are asking and how passionate you are with protecting your body, our livestock, and our agriculture.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 8:15 PM
Thursday, May 14, 2020
When you first arrive at a Dutch Bros. Coffee Company location, it is usually slightly overwhelming, especially if you are used to the typical coffee shop atmosphere; a cozy indoor place to sit in peace and quiet while you sip your preferred drink. The line of cars at the drive-thru only coffee shop is typically long, since it is such a popular place, and the initial thought is that you will encounter a long wait, annoyed employees, and thoughtlessly made drinks. What else could you expect with such a small building and a multitude of customers waiting in line? Dutch Bros. is anything but your typical coffee shop, so all of these assumptions, while accurate for some places, are completely off base for this particular company. If you are looking for a coffee shop that is convenient, offers a high level of customer service, and has specialty items such as White Coffee, you need look no further than your local Dutch Bros coffee shop. Brothers Dane and Travis Boersma opened their first Dutch Bros. coffee shop as a travelling temporary location in Grants Pass, Oregon in 1992. The pair sold their espresso from a push cart throughout Grants Pass until they were able to open their first permanent location. Over the years the company has spread across the Western United States, and now has over 250 franchise locations in Oregon, California, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Colorado, and Arizona (Reid). Now the company commits itself to helping the communities that they are partShow MoreRelatedIs Bloomington A Traditional Democratic College Town?1721 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBloomington is a traditional Democratic college town. The city limits are filled with farming cooperatives, community bike shops, farmers markets, and non-franchised coffee shops. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s shops like these that help define Bloomington from any other city in America. But what do these coffee shops mean in other parts of the United States? Within the past few years, cities have been classified as Ã¢â¬Å"hip:Ã¢â¬ fun cities for the average twenty-something. Some hipster cities are San Francisco, California;Read MoreOpportunities23827 Words Ã |Ã 96 PagesFor the exclusive use of D. DE ALEJANDRO 9-801-361 REV: SEPTEMBER 30, 2005 NANCY F. KOEHN Howard Schultz and Starbucks Coffee Company Prologue: International Expansion On August 2, 1996, Starbucks Coffee Company opened its first store outside North America. Like many of its U.S. and Canadian outlets, the new store was located in a busy district of a prominent cityÃ¢â¬âTokyo. Starbucks managers had devoted much time to selecting the site, designing the storeÃ¢â¬â¢s layout and fixtures, trainingRead Morethe main cities of the usa4461 Words Ã |Ã 18 Pagesis geographically the largest borough and the most ethnically diverse county in the United States and may overtake Brooklyn as the city s most populous borough due to its growth. 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Posted by Keegan Tanner at 3:44 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Certain individuals have a drive that can lead them to achieve what they desire most. In the Short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ , D.H Lawrence showcases this through character motivation and symbolism. He further this using pursuit of desire, and how if you take it to a certain extent it can result in tragedy if the individual chooses not to conform. Paul wants to please his mother because his mother feels that there family has no luck, but Paul proclaims that he is lucky. Paul suddenly becomes consumed with this sudden spree of good luck and feels this is the only way he will be able to gain to the affection of his mother. D.H Lawrence reveals that Paul has a certain flaw that turns him to believe that the only way he will be able toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This is due to the fact that every one is used to it so it would be like saying Ã¢â¬Å"we are breathingÃ¢â¬ (20). This led Paul to realizes that there family is in debt and he believes that in order for the m to get out of this debt, he has to take action. This shows that he is willing to take the problem into his own hands because he believes that no one else can do anything about it. Paul aligns him self with the attitude towards lucks. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m a lucky personÃ¢â¬ (21).Paul states this to his mother, however she responds with doubt and does not truly acknowledge or believe what Paul has just said. She most likely thinks that Paul doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand what they are going through and what luck really is. He thinks that by being lucky, which in the eyes of his mother is money, he will be able to gain her love but because of this doubt on his assertions he finds that this task is more difficult then he expected. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe he is lucky; so he needs to prove it. This Ã¢â¬Å"angered himÃ¢â¬ (21) and made him want to Ã¢â¬Å"compel her attentionÃ¢â¬ (21). The only way he saw it was that he needed to find this clue to luck in order to gain that admiration. T hus he is determined to find this luck and his passion grows to the point where all he is thinking about is how he can gain this luck. Lawrence describes his rise to luck in the situation when he is riding his rocking horse. This situation describes the point where Paul chooses to conform and begins his pursuit of luck. As Paul makesShow MoreRelatedThe Rocking Horse Winner Literary Analysis728 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Significance of The Rocking Horse Winner (An Analysis of Three Messages From Rocking Horse Winner By D. H Lawrence) D. H Lawrence was the author of The Rocking Horse Winner, which was one of his most famous stories, published in 1926. D.H Lawrence was intrigued with fate and destiny of life. The story was based around a young boy with intense amounts of determination because he felt he had to please his mother. D. H Lawrence expresses the conflict of economics and family, causing issues atRead MoreAnalysis Of The Rocking Horse Winner And The Lottery772 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAn Analysis exploring the irony in Ã¢â¬Å"The Ã¢â¬Å"Rocking-Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Ã¢â¬Å"LotteryÃ¢â¬ Often times an author will use irony as a literally technique to throw a twist in his story, whereby allowing the outcome of it to be completely different from what the reader expected. In D.H. LawrenceÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ and Shirley JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Lottery,Ã¢â¬ Mrs. Hutchinson and Paul, despite their motivation, are victims of misguided reasoning, resulting in the irony of each characterÃ¢â¬â¢s demise. In fact, eachRead MoreCritical Analysis Of The Rocking Horse Winner1178 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThree Messages From Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ ( A Critical Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ ) D.H Lawrence (1885-1930) achieved a generous amount of things during his days, and was known for his award winning stories, like for instance Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking Horse Winner.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"D.H. Lawrence is regarded as one of the most influential writers of the 20th centuryÃ¢â¬ (Guy). Throughout this story in particular, there are many messages that are represented and reflect the way of life or in other wordsRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of The Rocking Horse Winner819 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDaniel Moos ENGL 1302 Prof. Heflin 7/14/17 Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ In the short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse Winner,Ã¢â¬ by D.H. Lawrence, the use of many literary elements creates an enticing and inspirational approach to how the story is told. These literary elements help to form the story throughout the beginning, middle, and end. The ones that mostly develop the story are point of view, tone and style, and symbol. The story begins in an omniscient point of view or third person to makeRead MoreAnalysis Of The Rocking Horse Winner 922 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse Winner,Ã¢â¬ the author, D.H. Lawrence, reveals the character of Paul through a series of events which result in his death. Upon first glance, Paul is presented as a young boy, unloved by his mother, who tragically dies trying to prove himself lucky to her. However, upon further inspection, Paul is actually a rather complex character. In order to understand why he dies and for what he dies, readers must examine how the narrator depicts PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and demeanor, particularlyRead MoreThe Rocking Horse Winner Analysis742 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesare seen as core parts of the human body Ã¢â¬Å" The eye is the lamp of the bodyÃ¢â¬ ( Matthew 6:22). In the Rocking-Horse Winner, special precedence is put on the eyes,as eyes are mentioned 21 times in the entire story. Eyes are distinguished as a core motif in The Rocking Horse Winner, as eyes represent the characters emotional state and physical state throughout the story. The Rocking Horse Winner is a story about a middle-class Englishwoman who feels that she has underperformed societyÃ¢â¬â¢s expectationsRead MoreCritical Analysis : The Rocking Horse Winner827 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Critical Analysis: The Rocking-Horse Winner The short story, Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ , by D.H. Lawrence tells the story of young boy named Paul whose fortune turns out to be misfortune. Lawrence focus on the idea of parental love, what we need opposed to what we want, and the dangers of an obsession. PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Hester, firmly believes in the statement, If you re rich, you may lose your money. But if you re lucky, you will always get more money. (18) PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s obsessive need to earn moneyRead MoreThe Rocking Horse Winner Analysis956 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesno time to rest. Tolerating days of labor to find happiness, but find yourself empty when you have nothing to show yourself for it. D.H. Lawrence demonstrates this perfectly in his short story by including foreshadowing and symbolism, Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking Horse Winner,Ã¢â¬ D.H. Lawrence demonstrates that the greediness of wanting money leads to insanity and unhappiness. D.H. Lawrence, throughout the story teaches that the greed of wanting money leads to insanity and unhappiness by using foreshadowing. InRead MoreThe Rocking Horse Winner Character Analysis797 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe familiar theme in the two fictional stories, Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse Winner,Ã¢â¬ by D.H. Lawrence, and Ã¢â¬Å"Dog,Ã¢â¬ by Richard Russo, is the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation to achieve a greater source of income or popularity, which ultimately results in the neglection of the children, thus affecting the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s own motivation to Ã¢â¬Ëwin overÃ¢â¬â¢ their parents. Through the financial crisis of the family exemplified in Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse Winner,Ã¢â¬ or simply through the negligible manner of the parents in Ã¢â¬Å"DogÃ¢â¬ , readers canRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Rocking Horse Winner 1702 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageslife, which locks us in a dark prison of expectations and the key to freedom gets thrown away. Living a life where you care so muc h about what others think of you is as if we are nothing but sheep being herded to the final slaughterhouse! In Ã¢â¬Å"Rocking Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ , the author D.H. Lawrence paints a portrait of how the mother Hester can never truly be satisfied with what she poseses since she is always worried about the status and ranking of her class. The most important concern to her is looking respectable
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Evaluation Essay Poetry is not turning loose from emotion, rather it is an escape from emotion. It is a chance to be out of your body and express feelings from a third person perspective. Poetry is a surplus of emotion and power that is taken to paper to share with those who can relate. When you have nothing to say or donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to say it Ã¢â¬â it is poetry. It can be as simple as explaining an ocean set landscape, to as complicated as explaining how you feel from the inside out. Sylvia Plath effectively expresses her complicated emotions in a form that is bizarre to some. Leaving the reader in curiosity, she uses the stroke of a pen to capture the people who can not capture themselves. Sylvia Plath effectively captivates her readers appeal through her poetry by using emotional appeal, powerful language, and profound and developing structure. Sylvia Plath had a past that represents the type of hell that is unimaginable by a normal mind. Her birth by the seed of her educated parents was on October 27th, 1932. Her relationship with her father never fully developed as he died when she was only eight years old from a complication of diabetes. This death confused her psyche and destroyed her innocence at a young age, further creating a precedent of insanity and depression. Her creativity and ambition for success started with her daily journal that she kept from the age of eleven. As she grew to her teenage she posted her writings in regional magazines and newspapers whichShow MoreRelated Creativity and Mental Illness Essay2384 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesintelligence--whether much that is glorious--whether all that is profound--does not spring from disease of thought--from moods of mind exalted at the expense of the general intellect. Those who dream by day are cognizant of many things which escape those who dream only by night - E dgar Allen Poe When you are insane, you are busy being insane - all the time... When I was crazy, thats all I was. - Sylvia Plath Is creative genius somehow woven together with madness? According to the dictionaryRead MoreContemporary American Poetry and Its Public Worlds Essay8159 Words Ã |Ã 33 Pagespropensity from those we have known so far--philosophers of the dangerous maybe in every sense. (Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil, sec 2.) This will not be one more lament for the sad state of contemporary American poetry. Yet to define some of the basic strengths of new work I have to begin with what seems like a lament. For perhaps the most important invigorating element for contemporaries is a widespread dissatisfaction with what is called romantic lyricism, poetry based on the
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 2:41 PM
Yankee Doodle Although it was one of the most famous and popular songs in the American colonies, Yankee Doodles original author and words are not known. Some trace this melody to a song of French vineyard workers; some to a German harvest tune, some to a Spanish sword dance, some to a Dutch peasant song. However, the most likely source is an English nursery rhyme Lucy Locket (American Popular Songs 451). It Is said that In 1755 while attending to a wounded prisoner of the French and Indian war at the home of the Van Renewals family, Dry. Richard Shagbark composed these years.The song is about a little boy and his father visiting one of the army camps of the brigade during the American Revolution. When there, the boy saw the men dancing with the ladles. He saw Captain Washington giving out orders to his men , and various other things which include the swamping gun which uses a horn of powder to be loaded. In stanza 8 the barrel being talked about with the clubs is a drum which was used to call everyone together. The boy also saw men with red ribbons around their waists playing corn stalk fiddles, and also troopers on their horses shooting their rifles.The colonists probably got the song during the French and Indian war, when Richard Shagbark, a British army physician, was so amused at the sight of the ragged and disheveled troops under General Bradford that he decided to mock them. He improvised a set of nonsense lyrics to an English tune with which he had long been familiar; he palmed off this concoction on the colonial troops as the latest English song. The nonsense song of Doctor Richard Shagbark was Yankee Doodle. As stated directly from Our Familiar Songs and Those Who Made Them, Dry.Richard Shagbark was a regimental surgeon, afterwards appointed Secretary of Indian affairs by Sir William Johnson. This piece-up of broken humanity was a wit and musical genius, and the patchwork appearance of these new subjects amused him mightily. As they marched into the handsome and orderly British lines, the traditional picture of Cromwell, an American colonial General on the Kenneth pony, with a macaroni to hold his single plume, came into mind in contrast with the extravagant elegance of Charles and his Cavaliers.He planned a Joke upon the Instant. He set down the notes of Yankee Doodle, and wrote along them the travesty upon Cromwell. Dry. Shagbark gave the tune to the uncouth musicians as the latest martial music of England. The land quickly caught the simple and contagious air, and soon it sounded through the camp amid the laughter of the British soldiers. (583) It grew so popular with British troops in the colonies that they used it to taunt the services (American Popular Songs 452).It was a prophetic piece of fun, and its significance became apparent twenty-five years later when, to the tune of Yankee Doodle, Lord Cornwallis of the British army, marched unto the lines of these same old continentals to surrender his army and his sword (Our Familiar Songs and Those Who Made Them 584). In 1776 the song was interpolated in an early American comic Opera, The Disappointment of Andrew Barton. One year later the song received attention in the press for the first time by the Journal of the Times.At the outbreak of the revolution, the colonials appropriated Yankee Doodle. It was heard at every battle, and became a favorite in every camp, both in defeat and in victory. At the final surrender in 1781, on April 19, General Cornwallis pleading illness, did not appear. His substitute General OHara; prepared to give up his sword to General Washington, but was referred to General Lincoln. General Lincoln, when receiving the sword handed it back at once . As the British soldiers lay down their arms, their band played an old English melody entitled, The World Turned Upside Down. With equal suitability the continental army band played Yankee Doodle. Washingtons statement to his troops before the surrender was a great conclusion. My brave fellows, let no shouting, no clamorous hazing increase their mortification. It is sufficient to us that we witness heir humiliation. Posterity will huzzah for us (The Burl Eves Song Book 79). After the Revolution Yankee Doodle still retained its popularity. Benjamin Carr used it in an orchestral medley, Federal Overture, written in 1794 (American Popular Song 452). One of the arguments of the origin of Yankee Doodle is that of JAW Leo Lemma (The American Origins of Yankee Doodle). Lemma argues that Yankee Doodle is said to be written by an English army officer to ridicule the colonial American militia who were gathered at Albany, New York, in 1758, preparing for an attack on Fort Ticonderoga. It is usually claimed that the English soldiers in America first popularized the tune and that they played, sang, and danced to it from at least the occupation of Boston in 1768 to the close of the Revolution. The American took up the song after the Revolution.But Lemma went on to say, because of critical analysis this was found to be the opposite, Yankee Doodle is an American folk song, reflecting American humorous tradition and American self characterization. It probably dates from the late 1740 and it is true that the English soldiers adopted it in the pre-revolutionary decade and use it to ridicule the Americans, but the English soldiers learned during the course of the Revolution to appreciate the true spirit of the song. (436) According to Leo Lemma, the English troops under Lord Percy played it when they marched out of Boston on April 19,1775, going to relief Cool. Francis Smiths regiment, which was been cut to pieces by the American militia, as Smith retreated from Lexington and Concord. Even after Perrys brigade Joined Smiths, the retreating troops were relentlessly attacked until they reached the protection of the British The question is still open of the earliest print of Yankee Doodle. In Moors Song and Ballads of the American Revolution (1855), it is claimed that the Recess appeared with this air as a music sheet in 1779, but no such musical broadside has been found. The history of music printing in America renders this doubtful. Yankee Doodle found its way into print before forming an ingredient in Benjamin Cars medley Federal Overture composed in 1794 and published 1795. After this Yankee Doodle became frequently printed; but curiously enough, all versions differed slightly for decades, and they differed also more or less from two early American manuscript versions, one dated 1790, the other possibly written as early as 1775, at the B oston Public Library (Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians). Yankee Doodle is one of the queer tunes existing in several slightly different versions. It can be taken 6-8, in 2-4, and in common time with equal authority, for it is to be found printed with each of these time signatures and to the ordinary person, there is no difference, one is as good as the other (International Encyclopedia of Music and Musician 2495). At first there were sixteen stanzas to Yankee Doodle. But the early colonials and Americans ever since have delighted in adding more. Today, few people know any of the original stanzas, except the first one and the chorus (Stories of Our American Patriotic Songs 21).According to the International Encyclopedia of Music and Musician, Yankee Doodle is characterized as a popular American tune eminently fitted for humorous or burlesque utterance, to which in the course of 1 50 years doggerel verses in great variety have been sung (2495). Yankee Doodle it has been well said, began and ended the American Revolution. The origin of the song is a mystery to the solution of which many musical antiquaries eave devoted much time and research, but finding the inquiry has been unrewarding. And the mystery of the tune carries with it the mystery of the word Yankee and Doodle (International Encyclopedia of music and Musicianship). As stated by Encyclopedia Britannica, Yankee is a slang or colloquial name given to citizens of the New England states in America, and less correctly applied in familiar European usage, to any citizen of the United States. It was used by the British soldiers for their opponents during the War of Independence, and during the Civil War by the confederates and the Federal troops. The origin of the name has given rise to much speculation.It is considered to represent the Indians pronouncing English or Angles, and was applied by the Massachusetts Indians to the English colonists. On the other hand, the Scots Yankee, sharp or clever would seem more probable as the origin of the sense represented in the Cambridge expression. Dutch origination are other suggestion for the word Yankee. Thus it may be a corruption of Join diminutive Jon, John, and applied to the English of Connecticut as a nick name by the Dutch (903). American air, but none of them have been convincing.Yankee Doodle has caused more quarrels among historians and students of music than any other American song. Nobody knows exactly where the tunes came from (Stories of Our American Patriotic Songs 17). There are also many stories to account for Yankee Doodle usefulness as an American colonial song. One is that during the war of 1812, Yankee Doodle came in handy, serving another important purpose. Aaron Bates kept a light house upon the lonely shores near Situate, Massachusetts, about twenty five miles from Boston. One day when working Mr..Bates and his daughters saw a boat of sailors making their ay toward land, no doubt to raid the country. The two girls acted quickly and played Yankee Doodle with the fife and drum their grandfather used during the Revolution, and the British soldiers quickly turned back their ships fearing that the American soldiers were on the shore waiting and they would be out numbered (Stories of Our American Patriotic Songs 21). Despite the many arguments and stories, since Yankee Doodle was written, many other Patriotic songs have been added to our ever growing store.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 4:43 AM
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
In Ã¢â¬Å"Where Are You Traveling. Where Have You Been? . Ã¢â¬ Joyce Oates constitutes the usage of fables to make a sense of suspense in the narrative. The narrative depicts the manner society was in the sixtiess. In this clip period. there were a batch of contentions that cause a batch of defeat. Many narratives written during the sixtiess involved a batch of the same things that are in this coming-of-age narrative. The issues incorporated into Ã¢â¬Å"Where Are You Traveling. Where Have You Been? Ã¢â¬ were common even in world. The fables in OatesÃ¢â¬â¢ narrative represent the issue of artlessness and enticement. good versus immorality. and adult male overmastering adult female. Connie seems like an inexperienced person 15 twelvemonth old miss when Arnold Friend shows up at her house. She is easy persuaded to speak to Arnold and gives in to the enticement to travel for a drive with him. Arnold says a batch of sweet things to Connie to seek and do her autumn for his words. We will write a custom essay sample on Allegories in Ã¢â¬Å"Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?Ã¢â¬ Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He tells Connie how beautiful she is and calls her names such as Ã¢â¬Å"sweetheartÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"honey. Ã¢â¬ Connie. being the naive adolescent that she is. believes him. Although he scared her. she gave in to his appeal and went with him. Ã¢â¬Å"Where Are You Traveling. Where Have You Been? Ã¢â¬ is a narrative that represents good and evil. Connie is basically a symbol for good piece Arnold is the immorality. This narrative seems similar to the narrative of Ã¢â¬Å"The Garden of Eden. Ã¢â¬ Arnold Friend manipulates Connie in the manner that the Devil does to Eve in Ã¢â¬Å"The Garden of Eden. Ã¢â¬ As stated above. Arnold persuades Connie to take a drive with him by Sweet speaking her. He even tries to affect her by stating her that he is a portion of her group of friends. He attempts to pull Connie by dressing younger and by listening to the same type of music she does. As Arnold is sweet speaking Connie. he begins endangering her. Arnold tells Connie that there is nil better for her to make than give in to him. Finally. he starts to endanger her household. For illustration. on page 491 in paragraph 131. Arnold says. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t come out weÃ¢â¬â¢re gon sodiums have to wait till your peop le come place and so theyÃ¢â¬â¢re all traveling to acquire it. Ã¢â¬ Besides. on that same page in paragraph 134. he says. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦give me your manus. and cipher else gets injury. I mean. your bald-pated dada and your ma and your sister in her high heels. Because listen: why convey them in this? Ã¢â¬ At this point. Connie is already scared. She decides to run indoors and name the constabulary. However. Arnold someway persuades her that he is a good cat and is non traveling to harm her. Connie steps off from the phone and walks outside like he asked her to make and that is where the narrative ends. An fable that may non look as obvious in this narrative is adult male versus adult female. Ã¢â¬Å"Where Are You Traveling. Where Have You Been? Ã¢â¬ symbolizes the position that work forces were more powerful than adult females in this clip period. During the sixtiess. work forces were frequently seen as being much stronger than adult females. and adult females did non daring stand up to work forces because of fright that they would be shunned. In this narrative. Arnold was non needfully physically stronger than Connie. but he was stronger mentally. Because Arnold is so evil and clever. he convinces Connie to give in to his condescending demands. Arnold explains to Connie where he will take her and what they will make. He states this on page 492 in paragraph 154: WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll go out to a nice field. out in the state here where it smells to nice and itÃ¢â¬â¢s sunny. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll have my weaponries tights around you so you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t need to seek to acquire off and IÃ¢â¬â¢ll show you what love is like. what it does. The snake pit with this house! It looks solid all right. Now set your manus on your bosom. honey. Feel that? That feels solid excessively but we know better. be nice to me. be sweet like you can because what else is at that place for a miss like you but to be sweet and pretty and give in? Ã¢â¬Å"Where Are You Traveling. Where Have You Been? Ã¢â¬ may be seen as a really controversial narrative since it involves an older adult male carrying a 15 twelvemonth old miss to travel for a drive with him. The allegorical subjects it nowadayss are really powerful. The narrative shows that it is difficult to defy the enticement from such a powerful beginning. Besides. the war between good and evil is frequently stronger on one side than the other. In the sixtiess. work forces frequently overpowered adult females and were normally in control of everything adult females did. The terminal of Ã¢â¬Å"Where Are You Traveling. Where Have You Been? Ã¢â¬ is a cliffhanger and it makes you inquire what happened to Connie. She could hold safely returned place. or she could hold neer made it place. Joyce Oates leaves it to you to make up ones mind ConnieÃ¢â¬â¢s destiny.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 3:48 PM