Saturday, August 31, 2019
Comparative essay: IPhone vs. Samsung phone Technique: Point by Point In the 21st century, the smart phone has already become an indispensable instrument in human life. Human beings rely on smart phones in recording everything in their daily life. There are different smart phone manufactures all around the world such as Samsung, Apple, Nokia, Motorola and so on. Among the smart phone manufacture, the Apple and Samsung smart phone manufacturer are the leader in the smart phone world. Thus, the products from these two manufacturers are famous among the users, such as the Apple iPhone 5 and the Samsung Galaxy Note 2.Therefore, when we decide to buy a smart phone on either Apple iPhone 5 or the Samsung Galaxy Note 2, we should consider several aspects of the smart phone such as the design of the phone, the camera aspect, the life of battery can stand, call quality and the interface and function of the smart phone. First, we touch about the fabulous design of both the phones. The latest d ebuted iPhone 5 has created an entirely new design that thinner and lighter than the iPhones before. It is just 7. 6 millimeters amazing thin and weighs 112g that made out of glass and aluminum.Moreover, its 4 inches screen is palm-friendly and easily to operate with just one hand. It is not only comfortable you can say about the phone when a crystalline diamond is used to cut the chambers which give the beveled edge wonderful sheen, it makes you gorgeous even when you hold it. On the other hand, Samsung Galaxy Note 2 is much bigger than iPhone5 that is 5. 5 inches screen, 9. 4mm thin and 180g weight. It offers perfect and fantastic viewing experience just like cinema like-viewing. As for one-handed operation, it is not impossible.It provides ways to scooch the on-screen keyboard or the dialer which iPhone5 cannot be beat. Besides, it has a non-unibody chassis that allow us to easily swap SIM cards, batteries or expand storage via a microSD slot. Since the design of the phones is in comparable which means they have their own unique design, we would like to compare other features on both of the phones. By comparing the camera of iPhone 5 and Samsung Galaxy Note II, the iPhone 5 mostly takes care of everything on its own. The iPhone 5 has a fast HDR mode and a new option for panoramic photos, which up to 28 megapixels.The picture quality of iPhone 5 has high levels of details and good colour representation, without excessive noise. The iPhone 5 can manage scenes with high dynamic range better, and it also sports more constrast in its pictures, making them more visually appealing. The 1080 videos of iPhone 5 and the Note II exhibit the same great amount of detail and crisp focus as the still scenes, with 30fps inside and outdoors. The iPhone 5 footage comes with higher contrast, and looks less washed out under bright sunlight.For the Note II, it offers most major options like face/smile recognition, Panorama, HDR, low light mode and many others. It also has an abu ndance of scene and focus modes, as well as number of colour effects. The picture and video gallery on Note II split the screen with folders on the left for faster navigation and has richer editing capabilities built into it. The music players on both devices also offer tune categorizations and minimalistic interface. Note II offers more functions via sound modes and equalizer. Note II also has an FM radio.Both handsets also have excellent quality of loudspeakers, but the iPhone 5 unit sounds a tad fuller and clearer. The interface and functionality of these two phones run different operating system, which the Apple iPhone always run on iOS system, and now the iOS is updated to the version iOS 6 while Galaxy Note II runs the latest version of android system that is Android 4. 1 Jelly Bean. Android also offers plenty of customisation on the home screen and users can utilize widgets, custom launchers, custom keyboards and more.Android also doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to rely on iTunes for con tent synchronising and transfer and the iPhone 5 has the traditional grid of icons and everything else is pretty much neatly tucked away under settings. In terms of customisation, picking a wallpaper and ringtones can be used. Moreover, the processors and memory inside these two phones are different too. Apple using manually designed with 1. 3 GHz dual-core A6 processor with its own core architecture, while the Galaxy Note II is equipped with a quad-core at 1. 6GHz.The Note II can do multitasks efficient than iPhone 5. Besides that, the performance of the two phones also is depended on the user how to function it. Furthermore, the iPhone 5 has 1 GB of RAM, while the Galaxy Note II has 2 GB of the thing, and both have the basic versions starting with 16 GB of internal memory, going up to 32 GB or 64 GB variants. The Note II, however, sports a microSD slot for cheaper storage expansion. In overall, the interface and functionality of Samsung Galaxy Note II is better than Apple iPhone 5 . In contrast on the attery task, the Note II has the largest screen ever placed in a phone, and also the battery match with a 3,100 mAh unit tucked in neatly into its large body. It is rated for 35 hours talk time in 2G mode and 16 hours of talk time in 3G mode, and furthermore more than a month of standby (up to 890hours). However, the iPhone 5 has a 1,440 mAh battery, and is rated for 8 hours of talk time in 2G and 3G mode. Both handsets will deliver more than 10 hours of browsing or video watching on a charge, which are excellent results.On the other hand, the similarity of these two smart phones is discovered by smart users. There is an aspect that quite alike, which, aspect on calls quality. In the aspect call quality, both iPhone 5 and Note II carrying remarkable call quality, with loud and clear voices in the earpiece, even clean sound relay to the other end. The noise-cancelling do a very good job of weeding out the background noisy, with the iPhone 5 sporting a tad better sound capture probably thanks to the tri-mic setup it has going on. In a nut shell, the two phones functioning well in call quality.In conclusion, both Apple and Samsung products, Apple iPhone 5 and the Samsung Galaxy Note 2 have their own advantages and disadvantages. Thus, it falls upon the user to compare the similarities and differences between Apple iPhone 5 and the Samsung Galaxy Note 2 such as the design of the phone, the camera aspect, the life of battery can stand, call quality and the interface and function of the smart phone before buying the smart phone. Moreover, itÃ¢â¬â¢s also depending on the need of the user on the aspect. A- Group members: See Li Min Tan Sheue Ley Tan Siok Ying Chan Yi Qi Pei Leng
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 5:57 PM
Friday, August 30, 2019
The main purpose of this study was to examine the migration profile of the workers in the Gold and Jewellery Sector of West Bengal and also to study the process of skill formation of the workers in this sector. The entire study was based on a primary survey conducted on a sample size of 60 individuals spread over 4 different regions of West Bengal Ã¢â¬â Sinthi, Bowbazar, Basirhat and DomJur. In the first part of my study, I examined the pattern of migration of the Jewellery artists in these areas. I also cited the existence of a large number of in-migrants, circular and return migrants in this ector.In the next part, I studied in details the process of skill formation of the workers and showed how the period of apprenticeship was crucial in the career of a jewellery artist. I also explained the wage vriation between the skilled, unskilled and semiskilled workers in Basirhat and also attempted to establish a link between skill, income and migration of the workers. In the last part of my analysis, I attempted give a comparative study analysis of these areas with respect to the nature of the migrant workers, conditions of work, income and pattern of migration.Acknowledgements I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Swati Ghosh, Department of Economics, Rabindra Bharati University, who was extremely helpful and offered invaluable assistance, support and guidance. Her willingness to motivate contributed tremendously to the succesful completion my project. Deepest gratitude is also due to Prof. Sukanata Saha without whose knowledge and assistance this study would not have been successful.To the Jewellery workers and shop-owners of Sinthi, Bow Bazaar, Basirhat and DomJur, I whole heartedly thank you for your kindness, co-operation and patience. Without your support, this project would not have materialized. I would like to exp ress my heartfelt thanks to Mr. Kaushik Mukherjee (Bowbazar), Mr. Subhash Sarkar ( Atoshi Jewellers, Basirhat ) for their valuable help and guidance during my survey. And last but not least, special thanks also to all my class-mates, for sharing the literature and providing invaluable assistance during the survey.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 8:20 PM
Thursday, August 29, 2019
What do employees want and why do they want it? In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business world, companies are employing a plethora of motivational techniques, in order to increase their profits. Human resources departments use a merit based motivational program, an approach that focuses on the esteem of the employee, or a combination of both. The merit based, pay-for-performance program, employed by Jack Welch, uses money to motivate high performance, whereas the other approach focuses more on helping an employee feel better about his or her self, which will lead to higher performance. Neither method is right nor wrong, it depends on the organization. The organization needs to make sure it is meeting the needs of its employees. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs suggests people must satisfy five groups of needs in order-physiological, security, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization. Concerning MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory in terms of pay-for-performance, it can be analyzed under each of these five areas. The physiological need is the lowest in the hierarchy, and is generally the easiest to fulfill. This physiological level is the necessities and is usually entry level of pay, which is adequate to motivate a worker to pursue the desired position. Once a person attains the physiological level, security is the next need in line. Security is having the feeling of job security. Pay raises and pension plans are money motivators, thus keeping the employee motivated in achieving company quotas and goals in the long term. Social processes describe belongingness needs in MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy. A company that provides an indirect monetary reward through a social gathering satisfies this need. A social gathering helps co-workers develop personal and business relationships with each other. Esteem can be divided into two subcategories, self-respect and respect gained from peers. Monetary forms of company provided benefits such as larger offices, job titles and raises could suit this category. The most difficult level of the hierarchy to reach is self-actualization. According to Ã¢â¬Å"Management with Exercises in Management, Ã¢â¬Å"[Ã¢â¬ ¦] it can be argued these needs must be met entirely from within the individualÃ¢â¬ (Griffin, 2008, p. 439). Even though self-actualization rests with the individual, a manager can promote an environment where one can realize his or her own potential. With the pay-for-performance incentive plan, one can achieve self-actualization by reaching their goals and receiving a direct reward for the performance in the form of money. Money is not the only motivating factor, as displayed by a company named Seagate (Griffin, 2008, p. 463). With respect to SeagateÃ¢â¬â¢s motivational strategies, one must satisfy five groups of needs in order, physiological, security, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization. The company decided their circumstance was dire enough for drastic measures. Seagate sent 200 managers to a weeklong adventure race in New Zealand. Providing food, water, and air at the adventure retreat, fulfills the managersÃ¢â¬â¢ physiological needs. In the racing tasks, the employees learn how to depend and trust each other, thus gaining each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s security and fulfilling the security need. Belongingness is an important aspect in a career. An individual spends more than forty hours a week with their work family. It is very important that one have a good rapport with their co-workers, in order to achieve self-actualization. In the adventure retreat, the ending task is the race itself. For each leg of the adventure race, you must rely on your teammates and co-workers to complete the race together. The participation of all the employees fulfills the esteem area. Everyone is equal, honest, and encourages building the esteem of all participants. Self-actualization is the final level and most challenging to achieve. At the end of the retreat, participants leave with a new self-awareness and feel they were able to open up to their colleagues. This retreat gives everyone an important role on a team and creates dependence upon each other in order to complete tasks. This team building experience gives individuals the potential for growth and creates an open environment. Every organization has different ideas concerning motivation; Jack Welch is more of a pay-for-performance man (Griffin, 2008, p. 463). When it comes to motivational theory, Jack Welsh, former CEO of General Electric, thinks that financial rewards are the most important. Jack Welch said it best, when he said, Ã¢â¬Å"No company, large or small, can succeed over the long run without energized employees who believe in the mission and understand how to achieve itÃ¢â¬ (Gallo, 2008). Mr.Ã Welch firmly believes money is the most important factor in motivating employees in reaching their goals. Two different motivational theories discussed in Ã¢â¬Å"Management with Exercises in ManagementÃ¢â¬ correlate the incentive process of the workplace (Griffin, 2008). The expectancy theory is the first theory that relates to WelchÃ¢â¬â¢s money incentives. The expectancy theory Ã¢â¬Å"depends on two thingsÃ¢â¬âhow much we want something and how likely we think we are to get itÃ¢â¬ (Griffin, 2008, p. 442). The expectancy theory states that if an incentive is there for an employee, the employee must also feel they have a chance to earn it. For instance, if a company offers a monthly bonus of $1000. 00 to an employee to reach a certain goal, the employee must feel they have a chance to reach that goal as well. If the employee does not feel they can reach the goal, even though the bonus is monetary, they will not attempt to reach the goal. Jack Welch also utilizes the reinforcement theory in his approach. The reinforcement theory contends, when positive behaviors are rewarded, they are more likely to be repeated (Griffin, 2008, p. 448). Mr. Welch has a reputation of rewarding his employees with cold, hard cash. By rewarding high performing employees with money, Welch demonstrates he rewards behavior benefitting the company. These monetary rewards are going to motivate the other employees to perform at a high level as well. Motivation seems to have pros and cons when it comes to an organization or firm. Seagate, a Silicon Valley firm, explains why retreats are motivating to workers. SeagateÃ¢â¬â¢s tactics are a combination of a human relations and a human resource approach to motivation. The human relations approach emphasizes the importance of social processes in the workplace. Employees want to feel useful and important, have strong social needs, and these needs are more important than money when it comes to motivation (Griffin, 2008, p. 436). Managers give workers the feeling of importance by allowing them some power and control over their daily operations. For example, a manager will allow a team or an individual to provide input on a decision, although the manager already knew the result. This method satisfies basic social needs, therefore, results in higher motivation, which helps individuals reach self-actualization. Another motivational approach one may use would be a human resource approach. The human resource approach takes the concepts of needs and motivation to another level. The human relationists believe the illusion of contribution and participation enhances motivation. The human resource view adds that the contributions themselves are valuable to both individuals and organizations (Griffin, 2008, p. 437). People are able and want to contribute. Management needs to make full use of the available human resources by promoting participation and team building. Carla Cavanagh (2010) believes a human resources approach is a great way to train middle managers, and one could even argue it could extend to the rest of the employees. Cavanagh believes there should be a mutual trust between employees, they should be appreciated, conversed with, involved with decisions and their growth stimulated. When this much attention is shown to an employee, they become empowered and motivated to perform at a high level (Cavanagh, 2010). SeagateÃ¢â¬â¢s employees are motivated because, each year, selected managers participate in a weeklong retreat in New Zealand. During the event, they learn important characteristics of a strong culture that endorses trust, accountability, and healthy competition. In addition, they work on skills for adventure racing. When they return to work, the managers apply what they learned to their division (Griffin 2008, pp. 463-464). This environment places individuals in a position that they must ask teammates for help in order to complete tasks. The ability to ask for help eliminates major roadblocks within a team or organization. When an employee can ask for help, they open up to other employees. They begin to fill a social need and therefore, a level of trust. The employees also allow themselves to receive input from another team member or management. When members of teams or work groups give and accept ideas, they can collaborate and solve many issues. This in turn gives the employees a feeling of contribution and provides the organization with resolutions to problems. Everyday companies are looking for new ways to motivate their employees to perform at higher levels more efficiently. There are so many different theories and approaches to motivation, which forces companies to research several different avenues before finally arriving with a solution. Jack Welch and his pay-for-performance method can work in one environment, but a human resource method may work best in a different environment. The success of a motivational strategy essentially depends on the organizations culture, and its leaders. As long as an organization can work off MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy as a template, they are on the right path to motivating employees, improving performance, and increasing profits.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 10:43 PM
Importance of Scientific Knowlege for Students - Essay Example Knowledge based economies rely on skilled mathematicians and scientist. However, it is a worrying fact that America's labor force is aging fast. It has been projected that more than twenty percent of scientists and mathematicians are likely to retire by the year 2010 (Mac Iver 221). This is likely to result to a deficiency owing to the fact that fewer learners are pursuing math and science as their careers. The situation is further compounded by the fact that administrators and teachers themselves do not have adequate training, proficiency, tools and skills necessary for teaching Science and Mathematics (Janelle p. 231). In the previous decades, America has fallen behind in world rankings of nations with students earning math and science degrees and in the production of skilled workers. Consequently, United States has been forced to rely on other countries for skilled workers. For instance, doctors are recruited from regions such as Philippines, Sub-Saharan Africa and India. Moreover , emerging Asian nations like India and South Korea are winning acknowledgment in the development of software, computer, electronic display and storage technologies. On the other hand, dependence on science might make people incapable of maintaining their standards of living if they continue depending on the resources that present science offers, and substitute technologies might be insufficient or might present unbelievable hazards. Importance of Science Science and maths have an enormous influence on people's lives. They offer the foundation of much of contemporary technology techniques in materials, tools that make work and lives easier. If science and technology had by no means been invented, the world would be extremely different. Today, people can view live actions in the comfort of living rooms, communicate to friends anywhere on the globe and send emails and other types of messages within a few seconds. Almost everyday, medical professionals save lives and are capable of treating and curing once life frightening ailments with the use of sophisticated procedures, drugs and equipment. Discoveries made by scientists help to shape people's views about themselves and the universe. From the ancient Egyptian's scientific breakthroughs, to today's changing of organism's hereditary makeup, the development of scientific knowledge is an enduring phenomenon. Science Based Careers From the history of mankind, knowledge in math and science has at all times been improving and growing. A great deal of what separates the contemporary way of living from that of cave-dwelling ancestors are the innovations in science and its related field, mathematics. Every profession available these days in United States and beyond needs some mathematical and scientific knowledge. Training in humanistic studies is not nearly sufficient for any type of career. For instance, even farming has turned out to be quite complex. Outputs in agriculture have risen as scientists continually develop more efficient fertilizers and a better array of plants. With every passing day coupled with numerous discoveries in math and science, mastery of fresh developments is fundamental to students and all constituents of today's
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 1:05 AM
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) - Essay Example Increased efficiency and productivity are the main goals of TPM that are focused in this study. Ã Jindal Steelworks is a global company - a fast growing steelworks and fabrication company, with more than 7,000 employees. The company has recently been hit hard by the global recession and is presently facing hardships in maintaining its profits. The company management has decided to implement various management techniques with the help of available technological and HR management systems in the industry. A number of production and operational management techniques were utilized to increase the value of the system routing through a well defined systematic approach that assisted the company to identify better profits.Ã With the purpose of sustaining the future growth options, from a finer product based business approach towards higher operational excellence of the company, the management has decided to evaluate modern techniques, TPM, being one of them. By putting in the new management applications in the form of techniques like TPM, TQM, supply chain and inter-enterprise systems, Jindal Steelworks has been able to push through higher goals, better operational excellence, higher cost savings and competitive advantage, (Roberts, 1997). Ã With the effects of recession on the company profit margins, and changing industry scenario, the company management has been searching for low cost operational and production techniques, along with higher effciency results and customer orieted reuslts. TPM has gained a lot of attention within the steel industry and has been successfully able to eliminate common problems to steel plants like machinery breakdowns, onsite accidents, procedural defects and lack of standards and work safety. Introduction of TPM at the work floor of Jindal steel works has helped to improve work conditions, reduced accidents rates and breakdowns by a considerable margin. TPM
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 3:22 AM
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Chemistry of hazardous materials - Essay Example Although oxygen by itself is not flammable, it enhances burning processes. When liquid oxygen comes into contact with organic materials, it can easily trigger fires and explosions; this is the reason why spillage of liquid oxygen on asphalt pavement is potentially hazardous (Beeson & Smith, 2007). Asphalt is an organic material and liquid oxygen is highly concentrated. Spilled liquid oxygen is absorbed by the asphalt material, making the pavement potentially prone to fire and/or explosion. The ongoing activities on the asphalt pavement at the time of liquid oxygen spillage can raise or reduce the underlying hazards. Fumes of concentrated oxygen could be absorbed by the clothes passersby are wearing and any kind of spark or glowing material (burning cigarette) could trigger fire. On the same note, vehicle impacts on asphalt soaked in liquid oxygen could result in massive explosions, thereby destroying lives and properties (Beeson & Smith, 2007). Area of spillage should be avoided until safety is
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 5:52 AM
Monday, August 26, 2019
Cancer - Essay Example Cancer was initially completely untreatable. With medical advances, such as autopsies, anesthesia and the microscope, scientific oncology was born. Finally, in the eighteenth century, the understanding of molecular epidemiology led to the modern study and treatment of cancer (American Cancer Society). The origin of cancer lies in abnormal cell division. In normal cell division, new cells are produced as and when needed for a healthy body and when cells become old or damaged, they die and are replaced with new cells. Sometimes, there is damage to the cell DNA, the basic material in genes. These defective genes may be caused by mutations or may also be inherited. Instead of dying, these damaged cells lead to the formation of groups of malignant clones, or duplicates of the abnormal cells. These groups form a mass of tissue called aÃ tumor. A benign tumor is harmless and its cells do not spread to other parts of the body. A malignant tumor is cancerous. Its cells invade adjoining tissues and spread to other parts of the body in a process called metastasis. Cancer cells spread through the blood and lymph systems. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. The main types of cancer are: Carcinoma - cancer which originates in the skin or the lining of tissues; Sarcoma Ã¢â¬â cancer which begins in in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue; Leukemia Ã¢â¬â cancer in the blood and bone marrow; Lymphoma and myelomaÃ - cancers that begin in the cells of theÃ immune system; Central nervous system cancersÃ - cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord (National Cancer Institute). The types of cancer are named according to the name of the organ or tissue in which they originate. The main types are: Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, Adrenal Gland Tumor, Amyloidosis (blood), Anal Cancer, Appendix Cancer, Astrocytoma
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 8:25 AM
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Paper2 1500 - Essay Example s concerning the depths of both crises, with close attention to ways in which stock prices, GDP, employment, manufacturing production and overall economic policy reacted in both cases. Before making the comparison between the Great Depression and the financial crisis of 2008, it is prudent to perform and analysis of the pivotal differences in the nature of the capitalist system now and in 1929. It is noteworthy that the rise of neo-liberal capitalism in the 1970s, and the post-war shift to Keynesian economics that followed it precipitated the era of capitalist development. This was fundamentally different from the previous economic regimes, including the period after the Great Depression. Several arguments have been made regarding the main causes of the recent global financial crisis, and even though it may be hard to discern the exact causality. There are a number of factors that remain clear. Firstly, in a similar manner to the Great Depression before it, before the onset of the financial crisis, the world economy experienced a boom period with a rapid growth rate between 2001 and 2007. The rate of growth during this period was higher than any other period in the preceding thirty years (Wade, 2008). In this regard, most analysts concur that the financial crisis was initiated by the collapse of the subprime mortgage bubble in the United States. However, this fact was not the primary cause of the crisis. Secondly, even though the emerging financial crisis first appeared in early 2007. It was not until the year 2008 when major banks such as the Lehman Brothers began going to the wall, and financial assets started crashing that the full extent of the crisis became appa rent. As a result, credit flows dried up, and the global financial situation became dire with each passing day. One clear example of this situation is the subprime mortgage crisis in the United States. For instance, there was $130 billion of subprime lending in the country in the year 2000, but this
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 10:58 AM
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Personal Statement Example I soon came to realize that I could admire and respect those teaching professionals who are equipped, through education and experience, to provide students with a well-rounded curriculum as well as serving as advocates when the student requires additional support in a variety of different domains. This is why the university experience has been so valuable and why I continue to seek to improve my lifelong learning and worldview. Before becoming a student at Bangor University, I was enrolled at the Beijing Institute of Technology where, during the first year, I struggled to achieve more than average marks in Financial Accounting and Management Accounting. It was not because the curriculum was significantly difficult, it was simply due to my own unfamiliarity with radically different teaching methods in the UK as opposed to Chinese teaching methodology. However, I was determined to rectify what I perceived to be a minor deficiency, communicating to my tutors that I was having problems a djusting to the UK culture. Because of the aforementioned support, I was able to make the appropriate adjustment, learn about the absolute value of diversity and cultural disparity and achieve much higher marks by eliminating apprehension that once existed due to said lack of knowledge about the UK educational and social environment. I ultimately scored an 80 in Finance in my 2012-2013 academic year which was, in my opinion, a significant achievement and improvement of which I am quite pleased. It was, again, through the excellence of those engaged in the university experience that allowed me to exceed any boundaries and find personal fulfillment associated with high achievement. The university experience has given me many new perspectives and assisted in broadening my scope of knowledge that, today, allows me to successfully examine a variety of academic theories and effectively apply them to real life business and social scenarios. Some of this growth can be attributed to my volun teer work at the Beijing Institute of Technology in which I was responsible for introducing new students to the campus lifestyle and assisting them in adjusting to the living conditions of the campus and accommodating their needs to improve study and general lifestyle. It was my responsibility to map out efficient routes between the main study buildings, restaurants and any other campus-related need, thus essentially serving as a student-to-student advocate of which I received much appreciation and friendship development. Through this volunteer program at BIT, I further enhanced knowledge of cultural diversity and the absolute importance of embracing diversity in both an academic and social context. I am greatly satisfied with the outcomes that I experienced in the volunteer program which not only equipped me with a better understanding of human needs and behaviours, but also enhancing my preparation and management skills. On a personal note, I have a wide variety of hobbies that he lp to cultivate my abilities and further expose me to cultural differences within a social context. I am well-skilled in dance and in piano which not only allow me to embrace the beauty of the arts, but also improve intrinsic drive and ambition to succeed. I have found that my involvement in the arts serves as a motivational force that continues to further develop my capabilities as dance and piano require deep commitment and determination, which are two success
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 1:31 PM
Friday, August 23, 2019
Design and Facilities in Curry Leaf Restaurant is the United Kingdoms Finest Indian Restaurant - Assignment Example These project a beautiful inner view that attracts both locals and visitors making Curry Leaf restaurant the preferred place by many. The restaurant has a main objective of making sure that, it provides not only Indian cuisine but also an Indian environment for its customers. Therefore, the restaurant management has come up with two concepts on how to go about realizing this goal. The first one is that the management proposed to establish an Indian garden with an Indian touch. The management had in mind a place that gives its Indian customers and all its customers a pleasant interaction with the gardenÃ¢â¬â¢s natural beauty. A garden is referred to as a place to grow the plant and exhibit a variety of plants for ornamental purpose or practical use. However, since the restaurant is located in town and space is limited, a good layout plan is needed to realize a natural Indian garden look. For instance, to come up with a house a professional architect is needed the same case with a garden. In order to realize satisfactory results from a garden, the garden should be designed carefully considering its permanent and se mi-permanent features (Miller et al, 2012). An Indian garden combines the aesthetic Indian beauty, artistry from India and knowledge on growth and development of plants as well as principles of garden maintenance practices. May it be arranging trees, climber, shrubs, or any other flowers, a design is relevant. This is because designs outline the character of an object or a place in serving its sole purpose. The design may either be aesthetic of economic in such a way it attracts only for a purpose (Miller et al, 2012). Therefore, there are a number of fundamental factors to consider. The first one is that the garden layout should be convenient and comfortable to the owner. The second one is that the design should be simple and selective. For example, in this case, the garden is an Indian garden; therefore, the design should be simple where even an American Indian will recognize the Indian touch at a glance.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 4:05 PM
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Imperial Rome Essay More than a thousand years ago, most of the civilized world was ruled by Rome, and the Roman Empires reach extended over hundreds of countries and cultures. It was one of the greatest empires that ever existed in the world. Its influence reached as far as Britain, Persia, and even Africa. During the life of the Empire, great achievements were conjured and its mark was immortalized in the annals of history. The Roman Empire built the foundation by which western civilization (as we know it today) was created. It produced many great and influential people, and as a super power, it was the keeper of order and stability in the tumultuous, early days of Rome. Laws and government systems that were conceptualized and enacted during this time stands as the basis for modern forms of governance, particularly that of democracy. Numerous modern languages can trace their roots from its lingua franca. While now a dead and dormant language, Latin is the language on which many etymologies are based. The empire has also given us Christianity, a religion that has significantly shaped world history and interconnected a myriad of cultures. This paper delves into the historical pieces, people, and events that make up Rome as a great empire, their influence, and how they affected the fate of the Empire and its people. The Twelve Tables as the basis for Roman Law The Twelve Tables, also known as Lex Duodecim Tabularum, were drafted in the mid-fifth century BC as the set of governing laws for the Roman Republic in its early days. Those times where ridden with great political and social struggles, so the drafting of laws that addressed their issues was a necessity. The legislation stood as the very foundation of Roman law. The Romans legal attitude and the mos maiorum, which are unwritten societal norms, conduct, or cultural tradition, are based on this system. By modern standards, some of its provisions can be considered barbaric, but it was by its principles that all Western legislation was later founded on. Though Romans realized that philosophy was not one of their strongest attributes, they took pride in their system of governance and legislation. The Tables established the basic principle of the legal code. This law, then, was solely based on interpretation, and the Tables, providing a concise resolution, transformed the legal system. A complete account of the Tables did not survive to modern times. What we have now are quotations and excepts from the original. Many were culled from the works of writers such as Cicero and Aulus Gellius. The Roman Conquest in the Punic Wars The Carthaginians, hailing from Phoenicia, were called Ã¢â¬Å"PoeniÃ¢â¬ , thus the term Ã¢â¬Å"Punic. Ã¢â¬ The Punic Wars were a series of wars fought between Rome and Carthage during the second and third century BC. There were three wars, the first one starting out because of a disintegration of the parties formerly good alliance. Before any rift could form, Rome and Carthage originally signed a treaty against a common enemy, Epirus. Territorial tensions and broken agreements eventually led to the first Punic War. Even though both sides did not originally have conflicting interests, the war lasted more than 20 years. In their final battle, the Romans scored a decisive victory. This set the direction of conquest that the Roman Empire took over the course of its history. Republic vs. Empire At first, a republic system suited Rome as a small city; the constitution and government was suited for its values and social structure. This Republic shaped the laws and systems by which Rome emerged as the worlds capital. However, as their might and influence began to grow, the people preferred the rule of an Emperor instead to that of the Republic, and one of the main conflicts in the Republic was brought about by class differences. Wealth was not equally distributed, and this caused a great social unrest to the lower classes. Cicero: One of Romes Most Influential Figures Cicero, also known as Marcus Tullius Cicero, is considered as the greatest Latin orator. His prose is considered prolific and is widely read, most of which deal with politics. In the ancient world, he is considered an influential philosopher. He lived in the time when the Roman Empire was starting to crumble, and being an actor, he took part in many performances depicting the political events of that period. Constantine and the Rise of Christianity in the Byzantine Era Constantine, also known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Augustus (to his troops), is one of the greatest rulers of the increasingly growing Roman Empire. He is famous for founding Constantinople (also Byzantium) as Romes new capital. One of his most influential acts is the Edict of Milan, a decree that legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire. This earned him the title as the Ã¢â¬Å"First Christian Emperor,Ã¢â¬ and is considered as one of the most significant factors that facilitated the spread of Christianity in the whole world. The the Greek-speaking, Constantinople-based Roman Empire is commonly referred to as the Byzantine Empire (also the Eastern Roman Empire). The Byzantine Era was characterized by the rise of Christianity as the common faith (as opposed to paganism). Aside from the growing religious transformation, the direction towards Hellenization, or a transformation towards a culturally and philosophically Greek-oriented society, was also underway. Spartacus and Slave Revolt There were several major slave revolts during the Roman times, the most notable of which was that of Spartacus in 73-71 BC. This was considered as the greatest of all slave revolts in the Empires history, but modern historians have not reached a consensus as to Spartacus reasons for leading it. Spartacus was trained as a gladiator, and some theorize that he despised battling in an arena for Roman entertainment, thus his rebellion. He led revolts all over Italy, the center of the uprising being in Campania, in southern Italy . Thousands of slaves escaped from their masters to join him in his plight, and it took a kings army to put a stop to this. The Barbarians and the Fall of the Empire Historians have attributed the fall of the Roman Empire to the Barbarians, which were either of Germanic or British origins. During the third century, the empire experienced a great economic and political crises. Germanic tribes sacked the Western Empire, which they were not prepared to withstand. The constant barbarian assaults, civil unrest, and rising costs of living contributed to the Empires inevitable demise. Bibliography Baker, G. P. (1930). Constantine the Great and the Christian Revolution 1930. Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing. Cornell, T. (1995). The Beginnings of Rome: Italy from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (Circa 1,000 to 264 B. C. ). London: Routledge.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 7:46 PM
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
The Pros and Cons of Setting Separate Private Company Essay With the development of world economy, U.S.GAAP becomes more and more complex to meet public companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Private companies cost a great fortune to compliance with U.S.GAAP. So, setting public-private accounting standards is a different issue debated for decades. it goes without saying that setting new separate accounting standards have its advantages and disadvantages. Background In USA, there are a large number of nonpublic companies, much more than public companies. As time goes, deficiencies exist in current GAAP to meet nonpublic companies to make financial reporting. GAAP is extremely complex and onerous to nonpublic companies. Those private companies frustrated with being forced to spend a great amount of money on valuating intangible property, or spending hours on disclosures that users may not read. Therefore, private companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ owners cry for a sufficient and appropriate accounting standards meet their needs. In Jun 2006, The AICPA advocated for the need for setting a differential private company standards. Then, the Private Company Financial Reporting Committee ( PCFRC ), overseen by FASB, was formed to modify private accounting rules for private company. However, FASB overruled the PCFRCÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendations numerous times. In this way, in early 2011, Blue Ribbon Panel ( a joint committee of the Financial Accounting Foundation ) recommended to establish an autonomous board, directly overseen by FAF, to set new accounting standards for private companies, instead of oversight by FASB. Later in the year, the FAF overruled blue ribbon panel recommendation and proposed a new Ã¢â¬ Private Company Standards Improvements CouncilÃ¢â¬ (PCSIC), which can recommend changes and exceptions to standards FASB issued for private companies. But FASB still have final say by ratifying The PCSIC suggests. After that, the AICPA have announced its disappointment about FAF disallowed establish Separate private accounting standards. And according to the new Deloitte survey, more than half of medium and small sized companies (respondents) believe there should be separate standards. So, the battle isnÃ¢â¬â¢t end! The pros of setting private company accounting standards First of all, unlike big GAAP, a small GAAP for nonpublic company can simplify private company reporting. With the development of world economy, U.S.GAAP become more and more complex to meet large multinational corporationsÃ¢â¬â¢ and public corporationsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. However, many of those requirements are irrelevant to private companies. Users probably wonÃ¢â¬â¢t use much of information accountants prepared according to U.S.GAAP. Comparing with large companies, small companies compile those standards are expensive and time consuming. GAAP compliant financial statements are growing disproportionately compare with the benefits of providing such financial statements to users of private company. So GAAP is not an ideal framework for financial reporting for private company. While, separate private accounting standards would limit unnecessary information, reduce costs. Additionally, according to American Law, GAAP must be followed by public companies, those trade their securities in public market, but not obligatory to nonpublic companies, they prepare financial statements based on other accounting standards for their users. In this way, some of private companies strictly follow GAAP, some of them follow GAAP to a certain extent, others avoid GAAP altogether by choosing other account system. This can cause several problems. For example the reliability of the accounting information cannot be guaranteed since different kinds of reference standards private companies choose. The increasing difficulties for users compare with competitors in same industry. The Cons of setting private company accounting standards To begin with, private company might go public. If a private company comply with high quality GAAP from it started, going public wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be hampered to this company. However, if a private company adopts private accounting standards, instead of GAAP, the company must adjust its account according with GAAP before come in to market, and, without doubt, have less chance go public. In addition, the economics of a transaction should be accounted for in the same manner by all entities. In an economic transaction, events and circumstances are same to seller and buyer, regardless of whether entity is pubic company or not. So, the manner of recognition and measurement in the transaction should not be influenced by its size, its status as a private entity, or its sources of capital. Moreover, if separate private company accounting standards are set, there is no way to compare private company financial statements with public company financial statement. Under a single set of U.S.GAAP, financial users, like investors and business owners, can easily compare their financial statements with similar entitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ financial statements in the same industry, which can provide great value. Finally, Complexity of GAAP is a problem for all companies, whether public or private. The compliance burden falls proportionally to private company, because they have fewer resources and some of GAAP exempt to them. It is also complexity to public companies. So if public companies have to endure this, then so should private companies. Bibliography 1. Norris, Floyd. Proposal Would Create New Accounting Standard-Setter for Private Companies. The New York Times. The New York Times, 04 Oct. 2011. Web. 13 Oct. 2012. 2. Hood, Tom. Private Company GAAP? Time to Pay Attention. Macpa. Macpa.org, 07 Dec. 2010. Web. 13 Oct. 2012. 3. Pounder, Bruce. The Big Risks of Little GAAP Accounting CFO.com. CFO.com. CFO.com, 2 Dec. 2010. Web. 13 Oct. 2012. 4. Zanzig, Jeffrey S, and Dale L. Flesher. GAAP Requirements for Nonpublic Companies. Nysscpa. Nysscpa.org, May 2006. Web. 13 Oct. 2012. 5. Small or Mid-Size Private COmpanies Indicate Preference for Separate Accounting Standards: Deloitte Survey. Galegroup.com. Investment Weekly News, 8 Aug. 2009. Web. 13 Oct. 2012. 6. Beckwith, George. Is a separate FASB for private company GAAP coming? Financial Executive Oct. 2010: 66+. Academic OneFile. Web. 14 Oct. 2012.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 11:27 PM
Purpose of the Wall Street Journal Saiteja Naidu (MSIS)Ã The Wall Street Journal The Wall street journal main purpose is for the business groups and financial investors. It was initially started by Charles Dowand Edward Jones, owners of Dow, Jones and Company, started publishing the daily Wall street journal on 8 July 1889. Earlier newspaper was started in United states which was firstly concentrated on general news later it began to focus mainly on business news, fluctuation in prices of stocks, bonds and some classes of commodities (Wendt, p. 28).It was edited in newyork city for u.s.a and daily editions include parts of asia, europe. Bernard Kilgore got to be overseeing proofreader of the diary in 1945, seventeen years after the demise of Clarence Barron. Kilgore upgraded the paper, extending its scope to incorporate all parts of business, financial aspects, and shopper issues, including general news that affected business.The Wall Street Journal is possessed by media tycoon Rupert Murdoch, who bought the organization for $5 billion in 2007 through his organiz ation, News Corporation. The deal finished the 105-year-long responsibility for Wall Street Journal by the Bancroft family. Murdoch, one of the worlds most effective media mogul. The Wall Street Journal has since quite a while ago overwhelmed American business distributing and was the nations first national daily paper. The journal has its classic daily paper and in addition e-daily paper which is most prevalent now a days to exist its check in innovation world with live redesigns and its commonplace business share report is found in the consistently computerized news for financial specialists. It has a sort of obstructs that none can coordinate the measures of its factual report and fascinating political news with showing territorial release. Journal vision to create interest for business in the public and its preferences in newspaper: The Journal started a few indexes of value developments of stocks, including the Dow Jones Indexes. The upper left-hand segment secured general market and monetary developments. The second from left secured the points of interest of the days market developments. Whatever is left of the four-page paper was completely business situated, announcing general news with regards to its impact on the business sectors. At the point when the nation is creating in the meantime there is a quick increment in the speculation and development in the pay of a person which requested for the proposals and thoughts where to put, When to move into business and shares. The Journal Interests and objectives: Journal rose as the voice of political conservatism in American news coverage. Such an article point of view, when joined with wide national dispersion, gave solid course and promoting income development, achieving $2.3 billion in the year 2000 and benefits before exceptional things of $294.6 million. The Journal mainly focuses on the business with deep immense research and commonplace authors with their amazing words to draw in the readers. It shows eight Headers for e-newspaper comprises of Home, World, U.S,Ploitics,Economy,Business,Tech,Markets,Opinion,Arts,Life,Real Estate Again those blogs are subdivided into various blogs related to the stream. The most preferable thing about the journal is that an individual can subscribe for different versions of software. This journal had both print and digital with various prudent enrollment memberships. We can download in android and ios renditions to take after the business and general news in computerized path for brilliant utilize. There are corporate memberships for business speculators and business people particularly for business magazines. There is also student journal and professor journal to register and publish the paper. Even they can subscribe to the job activities and can enlarge their network for career wise advantages. At present the world blog comprise of brussels in real time, china in real time and India in real time. The opinion column is the most crucial aspect to respect the individual ideas in wall street. References Dealy, Francis X., Jr. The Power and the Money: Inside the Wall Street Journal. Secaucus, N.Y.: Carol Publishing Group, 1993. Rosenberg, Jerry M. Inside the Wall Street Journal: The History and the Power of Dow Jones and Company and Americas Most Influential Newspaper. New York: Macmillan, 1982. Wendt, Lloyd. The Wall Street Journal: The Story of Dow Jones and the Nations Business Newspaper.Chicago: Rand McNally, 1982. http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/111215/who-actually-owns-wall-street-journal.asp#ixzz4YydDnOQx. https://www.wsj.com/.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 3:08 AM
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Visual Programming Languages The way programmers have created applications over the years has changed dramatically, and so has the amount of knowledge required to create applications as well as use them. In the 1950's a computer was a machine that took up the space of an entire room and cost millions of dollars that had less processing power than modern day calculators. The technicians required extensive knowledge of the electronic and mechanical components as well as specific combinations of switches to create responses from the massive mainframe. Upon creation of microprocessors and personal computers text based programming languages were possible, such as, BASIC and Turbo C++. These languages enabled programmers to create applications without knowing the specifics of the machine itself. Easily understandable words could be used in conjunction with each other to create programs that the machine would understand. This was done with a compiler, which is another application that takes the code the programmer created and turns it into something the machine can understand. This method of software creation was so efficient that thousands of companies started to have software created for them that never considered the possibility of computer aided business. Not only was the commercial world taking advantage of the wonders of technology but also was the government. The Department of Defense was the first non-educational use of what is now known as the internet. The internet not only made it easy for people or groups to communicate quickly between each other, it also created an idea of user friendly and platform independent design. HTML was a standard created initially so groups of researchers could relay their findings back to the main laboratories without worrying about document compatibility. Browsers on all platforms including Macintosh, Windows and UNIX will all understand HTML and therefore anyone on any machine can view what is on the internet. This increased further to include not only applications but also programming software. Today millions of Americans have access to the Internet in their homes and in addition to that many of them also have their own web page on some server on the internet. Many of these people don't even know what HTML stands for (HyperText Markup Language) but they do know how create a web page from scratch and maintain it. All of this is possible because web page creation software as become more user friendly over the years. Microsoft's Frontpage is one of the most frequently used webpage publishing software currently used and is even used by people who know HTML because of the efficiency of the product.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 6:49 AM
Monday, August 19, 2019
While I was reading the short story Ã¢â¬Å"Heart of Darkness,Ã¢â¬ by Joseph Conrad, I recalled an essay I read back in Korea, titled Ã¢â¬Å"Why Do We Read Novels.Ã¢â¬ The writer of the essay states that the most common reason why we, as people, read novels is that it makes us ask ourselves how the justice or injustice of the real world relates to that of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s words. In this way, the short story Ã¢â¬Å"Heart of DarknessÃ¢â¬ portrays the experiences and thoughts of Conrad through the tale of two important characters, Marlow and Mr. Kurtz. His work forces the reader to ponder questions of the morality, humanity, and insanity which takes place in our human lives. The story is a record of MarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to meeting Mr. Kurtz, a morally corrupted being who is a symbolic representation of the darkness and wilderness of the African jungle. It is necessary to pay close attention to the process of MarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s journey and meeting with Mr. Kurtz in order to understand the meaning of what he learned from discovering himself and how this relates to our modern world. Unlike other white men who went into the Congo River for unmoral or materialistic reasons, such as to Christianize the natives or to get rich by exploiting all the ivories in the jungle, Marlow does not feel right about how the Imperialistic European countries exploit of the rest of the world. This is shown very clearly when Marlow says Ã¢â¬Å"This devoted band called itself the Eldorado Exploring Expedition, and I believe they were sworn to secrecy. Their talk, however, was the talk of sordid buccaneers: it was reckless without hardihood, greedy without audacity, and cruel without courage, there was not an atom of fore-sight or of serious intention in the whole batch of them, and they did not seem aware ... ... jungles of the Congo or on the civilized streets of London. I feel strongly that one of the reasons why Conrad wrote this novella is to encourage us to ask ourselves about how we encounter ourselves in the contemporary society. He must have felt that people during his time indulged in imperialism, which prevented them from reflecting on themselves. Consequently, there are many evidences in the text that show his cynical view of imperialism. For example, Marlow describes the French armyÃ¢â¬â¢s firing into a continent as Ã¢â¬Å"a feeble screechÃ¢â¬ (P.275), implying the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s pessimistic view towards imperialism. In this way, the people in the modern society indulge in modern things that prevent us from reflecting on ourselves, such as mass media, the internet, etc. Conrad once said Ã¢â¬Å"Facing it, always facing it, that's the way to get through. Face it.Ã¢â¬ Are we facing ourselves?
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 10:30 AM
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Crop Circles have been found throughout the whole country. They are one of the most intriguing things that I have read and researched. There have also been many shows that I have watched that have been very interesting. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The first recent evidence of a crop circle was in 1966 in Tully England. The circles themselves ranged from a few inches in diameter to a few feet. There is also evidence of a crop circle in Hertfordshire, England in 1678. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There have been many theories as to why these peculiar circular shapes have appeared in peoples crops. These theories include UFOÃ¢â¬â¢s, energy fields, and also plasma vortexes(sine 1). There is no evidence as to how these patterns are formed. There is evidence that there is an electric field aroound some of these circles. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One theory is that electrified air forms mini-tornadoes and causes the circles. This is called the Ã¢â¬Å"Plasma Vortex TheoryÃ¢â¬ (Sine 1). Another theory that is very prominent is that all of these circles are hoaxes and were made by people to recieve publicity. Hoaxes are blamed for many of the circles especially the ones that are more complex. There have been people to admit to man making some of these circles. Two people who have admitted to this are Doug Bower and David Chorley(Sine 1). They admitted to faking around two hundred fifty cirle formations. Many of the circles that were admitted hoaxes were under suspicion because of there ragged look. Also some of the more complex and intricat ones are thought to be fakes. The amount of these circles is proof in itself and the fact that they are spread throughout the world is also proof that it is not all a hoax. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The most interesting theory is that UFOÃ¢â¬â¢s made the circles(sine 2). there have been sightings of UFOÃ¢â¬â¢s and circles have been at the sight the next morning. There also has been sightingds of balls of light over the fields at night that have left these circles on the ground. When some of these circles have appeared a Ã¢â¬Å"sceamingÃ¢â¬ (Sine 1) noise was heard in the night along with strange nocturnal lights. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Sometime in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s circles appeared on the farm of a guy anmed Billy MeierÃ¢â¬â¢s farm. This person also had claimed to have been abducted by aliens in the past. The grass was flat but not broken just bent over.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 2:11 PM
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Introduction Galileo Galilee once said a man cannot teach a man anything but rather he can only help him find in within himself. This means that you can only go so far to help someone learn and make the right condition for the learner to discover what already known to be true. The principle of outcome based education relates to this passage from Galilee where Outcome-Based Education means clearly focusing and organizing everything in an educational system around what is essential for all students to be able to do successfully at the end of their learning experiences. This means starting with a clear picture of what is important for students to be able to do, then organizing the curriculum, instruction, and assessment to make sure this learning ultimately happensÃ¢â¬ (Spady, 1994:1). In this approach learners may identify what are the things which are important and what is essential for them. It is indeed true that learning may not be significant with someone unless it may reflect the importanc e of learning in real life and utilize it in different life roles. OBE has been around for centuries. The origins of modern outcomes-based education can be traced back to the work of Italian educator Maria Montessori, whose teaching theories shaped the development of Montessori schools the world over. Working in the early 1900s, Montessori believed that instead of setting up arbitrary grading systems, tests, and the like and teaching inputs based on them, education was best measured by encouraging individual student achievement, which can occur at different rates for different students. This method would allow students of different skill levels and abilities to learn at their own individual rates (or outcomes), rather than lumping all students together and measuring them at the same standard at the same point in time. In the local setting, government educational bureau, school administrators and educational gurus are continuously seeking ways and means to upgrade the standards and quality of education in terms of its delivery system and other related components of quality education. The continuous growth of population, government budgetary allocation for education, and educational political will have been a great factor in the affects the quality of education one can experience. Other than that, some other problems occurred such as: lack of qualified teachers, inadequate classrooms and ineffective programs. These are more evident to public schools here in the country. Recognizant of this reality, the Commission on Higher Education in pursuit of an ongoing paradigm shift to learning competency based standards mandated all Higher Education Institution to incorporate a Quality Policy utilizing an Outcomes Based Education. This policy-standard, which applies to private and public Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the country, is issued to enhance the quality assurance system of Philippine higher education through learning competency based standards and an outcomes-based system of quality assurance that is differentiated by type of HEI. CHEDÃ¢â¬â¢s rationale in implementing this policy is very specific as they believe that this mandate will contribute to building a quality nation capable of transcending the social, political, economic, cultural and ethical issues that constrain the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s human development, productivity and global competitiveness. The commissions focused in mandating all HEIÃ¢â¬â¢s underscores a quality assurance that is rooted in research which suggest that there has been a lack of a critical pool of graduates with the necessary thinking, technical and behavioral competencies are among the factors constraining the re-launching of the Philippine manufacturing sector and the achievement of the full potentials of the service sector. Another important ideas of this policy is that change is dynamic the Philippine educational system should adopt with the ever changing climate of systems that Philippine s has been left behind. The reality is that in 2015 where ASEAN community will facilitate the free flow of qualified labor in the region and either open up opportunities for graduates of Philippine HEIs or threaten their employment even in this country. The Philippine educational system should move on this suggest that Philippine should keep on track or be left behind. (CMO No. 2 S. of 2011) This mandate from CHED aims to contribute to building a quality nation capable of transcending the social, political, economic, cultural and ethical issues that constrain the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s human development, productivity and global competitiveness. The fulfillment of this action entails all HEI to offer quality programs that will meet the national and the international standards of programs for the different professions/disciplines. Quality assurance is viewed as an important ingredient in the social development of the population especially the Filipinos out of the poverty condition. CHED defines quality as the alignment and consistency of the learning environment with the institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s vision, mission, and goals demonstrated by exceptional learning and service outcomes and the development of a culture of quality. This definition highlights three perspectives of quality. One the quality as fitness for purpose, which is generally used by international bodies for assessment and accreditation, requires the translation of the institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s vision, mission, and goals into its learning outcomes, programs, and systems. Second quality as exceptional means either being distinctive; exceeding very high standards; or conformance to standards based on a system of comparability using criteria and ratings. And lastly quality underlies CHEDÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of exceptional; and Quality as Ã¢â¬Å"developing a culture of qualityÃ¢â¬ is the transformational dimension of the CHED notion of quality. Quality assurance utilizing the OBE has been widely argued by educational administrators, though this would impact the educational system of the country where Philippines has been left behind years back by our neighboring ASIAN nations. This paper aims to assess how well the HEIÃ¢â¬â¢s administratorsÃ¢â¬â¢ in Olongapo adapted to the provision of the OBE and the practices of the educators with regards to OBE or are thy well equipped with the knowledge and skills relating to OBE. This issue is very timely and is pressing the education administrators. It is imminent that this policy is another challenge facing the educational sectors to adopt and practice the quality assurance utilizing the OBE principle. There are several questions that determine the direction of this study. What are the best practices of the HEIÃ¢â¬â¢s administrators with regards to OBE as well as theory instructors? How well they adopt and practice quality policy as set forth by the CHED? And their reasons in adopting or implanting this quality policy? An explication of OBE will be dealt with this forgoing study this will also illuminate the performance of the HEIs in Olongapo. Review of Related Literature This paper aims to explore the principles of OBE as practiced among the HEIÃ¢â¬â¢s in Olongapo. This is intended to explain the principles and how this principle is incorporated in their system. In addition this paper will definitely help teachers and administrators understand the process and practices on OBE among other HEIs in Olongapo which will certainly facilitate other institution to espouse the practices of their counterpart. The Philippine educational system as observed by the researcher has been through a lot of curricular development. Policies and standards have been laid; OBE is one of the recent development to which it has been advocated by some and critics by many. Where will this process lead the curriculum? Outcomes based education is a process that involves the restructuring of curriculum, assessment and reporting practices in education to reflect the achievement of high order learning and mastery rather than the accumulation of course credits (Tucker, 2004). According to Tucker the primary aim of OBE is to facilitate desired changes within the learners, by increasing knowledge, developing skills and/or positively influencing attitudes, values and judgment. OBE embodies the idea that the best way to learn is to first determine what needs to be achieved. Once the end goal (product or outcome) has been determined the strategies, processes, techniques, and other ways and means can be put into place to achieve the goal. The major problem in all curricular frameworks is the outcome or product measurement. Geyser (1999) stated that OBE deals with the product Outcomes are clear learning results that learners have to demonstrate at the end of significant learning experiences: what learners can actually do with what they know and have learned. Outcomes are actions/ performances that embody and reflect learner competence in using content, information, ideas and tools successfully. He further proposed that when learners do important things with what they know they have taken a significant step beyond knowing itself. Vela, Berardinelli & Burrow (1998) reminds us of the importance of accountability mechanisms (learner assessment) that directly reflect student performance and help learners Ã¢â¬Å"know what they knowÃ¢â¬ . Thus outcomes describe the results of learning over a period of time Ã¢â¬â the results of what is learned versus what is taught. Spady and Marshall (1994:20) an advocate of OBE has explained the meaning and concept of outcomes as: Outcomes are Ã¢â¬Ëclear, observable demonstrations of student learning that occur after a significant set of learning experiences. They are not values, attitudes, feelings, beliefs, activities, assignments, goals, scores or averages, as many people believe. Typically these demonstrations reflect three things: Ã¢â¬ ¢ What the student knows Ã¢â¬ ¢ What the student can actually do with what he or she knows Ã¢â¬ ¢ The studentÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence and motivation in carrying out the demonstration. They further state that outcomes are what learners can actually do with what they know and have learnt. In other words they are the tangible application of what has been learnt. That assists the learners to know themselves. OBE compels educators to use action verbs like describe, explain, design or produce. These action verbs are preferred more than the vague and non-demonstration processes like know, understand, believe or think. It should be noted that since outcomes occur at the end of a learning experience, they represent the ultimate result of the didactic situation. In general, OBE standards are clearly defined and are known by all learners. This system allows the learners to reach and receive full credit for achieving any performance standard. OBE focuses on increasing studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning and ultimate performance abilities to the highest possible level before leaving school. That means that OBE takes an overview of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning and achievement. In this situation mistakes are treated as inevitable steps towards development and demonstration of high-level performance capabilities. The traditional system takes the opposite approach where testing and permanently grading of learners is very important and emphasizes on rewards learners for assigned work covered in class. Those who are fast and consistent performers get the best grades and records and those who are slower never get the opportunity to catch up because previous mistakes cannot be erased. Outcome-based methods have been adopted in significant ways in the United States, Australia, South, and Hong Kong to mention a few. Each education agency specifies its own outcomes and its own methods of measuring student achievement according to those outcomes (Goals setting strategies). Though it is claimed the focus is not on Ã¢â¬Å"inputsÃ¢â¬ , OBE generally is used to justify increased funding requirements, increased graduation and testing requirements, and additional preparation, homework, and continuing education time spent by students, parents and teachers in supporting learning as well as the unit cost of training a student. (European Journal of Social Sciences Ã¢â¬â Volume 13, Number 2 2010) In the Philippine education system, the quality and quality assurance in education has been the major theme from the past decade not only in the Philippines but from the rest of the world. Valisno (2000) in her presentation at the International Conference on the Quality Assurance in Higher Education: Standards, Mechanisms and Mutual Reorganization. She recognized that more and more people are concerned about the products or outputs of universities and colleges, whether societies are getting the real value for their investments in higher education. Harman(1996) points to the following main concerns on the quality issues that presently dominate the debates on higher education: 1) maintenance and improvement of levels of teaching, learning, research and scholarship; 2) improvement in the quality and adaptability of graduates; 3) how to define and measure quality; 4) whether management approaches of and colleges improve outcomes; 5) the use of benchmarking and performance indicators; and 6)how to convince stakeholders that institutions and systems are doing a competent job in ensuring quality outputs. Valisno further explained that universities and government agencies just used different terms such as academic standards, standards of degrees and diplomas, student assessment, and accountability. But the main issue also was largely about maintaining academic standards according to some national or international norm, the maintenance and improvement of levels ofÃ¢â¬â¢ teaching and learning, and how to provide sufficient financial and other resources to achieve quality higher education, As can be observed, many ofÃ¢â¬â¢ these issues are still significant today, but the new quality debate is centered largely on the achievement of quality outcomes; which necessitates the establishment of appropriate internal quality auditing and quality management processes not only to continuously monitor achievement, and to ensure rising achievement developing but also to determine and implement the quality policy and such as the management ofÃ¢â¬â¢ quality control and improvement. The lesson of the past as understood by the researcher could be the driving force of the educational managers of this country to adopt the process of OBE as an educational process which is based on trying to achieve certain specified outcomes in terms of individual student learning. Malan (2000) affirmed that the shift toward OBE is similar to the total quality movement as it reflects the best way for individuals and organizations to get where they are going is first to determine where they want to be then plan backward to determine the best way to get from here to there. Proponents of OBE assume there are many ways to arrive at the same results. OBE is currently favored internationally in countries such as Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and United States. Qualitative Approach This paper utilized the phenomological approach in research. This will illuminate the issue of outcomes based education concerning the best practices of the HEIs in Olongapo where the particular actors of the present phenomenon are the HEI administratorsÃ¢â¬â¢ and the instructors. They will be the locus of the study. Personal perspective and personal interpretation of the subjects will be given importance in illuminating the purpose of this study. This approach is very effective in bringing to frontage the experience and perception of individuals their own perspective of OBE and will therefore be used as a basis to inform, be inform and to give support to the surfacing issue on OBE. The strength of qualitative research is its ability to provide complex textual descriptions of how people experience a given research issue. It provides information about the human side of an issue Ã¢â¬â that is, the often contradictory behaviors, beliefs, opinions, emotions, and relationships of individuals (Qualitative Research Methods p.1-2). Qualitative methods are also effective in identifying intangible factors specifically in the light of OBE utilization in some HEI in Olongapo. The data collected in a qualitative study includes more than words; attitudes, feelings, vocal and facial expressions, and other behaviors are also involved. The data which may consist of interview transcripts, field notes from observations, a wide variety of records and historical documents, and memoranda, are treated to rigorous ongoing analysis. Three processes are blended throughout the study: collection, coding, and analysis of data (Glaser & Strauss, 1967): This approach encourages the kind of flexibility so important to the qualitative researcher who can change a line of inquiry and move in new directions, as more information and a better understanding of what are relevant data are acquired (Blumer, 1999) All the higher educational institution in Olongapo will be covered by this study namely; CELTECH College, Columban College, Mondrian Aura College, Gordon College and the Lyceum of Subic Bay. The school administrator represented by their president or the vice president for academic affairs together with the instructors of the premier or the flagship program of the institution will be utilized as the respondents of this study. Data collection and sampling is an important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results. A purposive sampling technique will be utilized to depict the purpose of this study. According to Cormack (2000) suggests that qualitative researchers use a small selective sample, because of the in-depth nature of the study and the analysis of data required. The HEIÃ¢â¬â¢s administrators as well as the instructor are purposively chosen to provide vital information that will shed light to the foregoing study. An interview will be utilized as the primary data collection technique. Interviewing is widely used in qualitative research. Compared with observation, it is more economical in time. Interviewing is trying to understand what people think through their speech. (www.ssrc.hku.hk/er/qr0204.doc) Prior to gaining consent from participants, letters requesting permission to carry out the study will be sent to the necessary institution. If all permission requests are granted, a letter of invitation will be distributed to all the HEI administrators and instructors of the premier program of the HEIÃ¢â¬â¢s inviting them to participate in the study. The researcher will use open-ended interviews as it allows participants to discuss their opinions, views and experiences fully in detail where as perhaps a interview with closed ended questions may inhibit them to express their full opinions and feelings. With the use of semi-structured interviews the researcher will have prepared a topic guide or a certain amount of questions to be covered with each participant (Polit and Beck (2008). A face to face interview allows the researcher to observe any non-verbal communication but also allows both the interviewer and participant to seek any clarification necessary. The interviews will be audio-taped with permission from the participant to ascertain an accurate account of the interview which can be replayed for analytic purposes and anonymity will be assured during the course of the recording. A qualitative research interview seeks to cover both a factual and a meaning level, though it is usually more difficult to interview on a meaning level. (Kvale, 1996). Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a participantÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences. The interviewer can pursue in-depth information around the topic. Interviews may be useful as follow-up to certain respondents to questionnaires (McNamara, 1999). A general interview guide approach will be used in this study. This guide approach is intended to ensure that the same general areas of information are collected from each interviewee; this provides more focus than the conversational approach, but still allows a degree of freedom and adaptability in getting the information from the interviewee ParticipantsÃ¢â¬â¢ will be reminded of their right to withdraw from the study or terminate the interview at any time before commencing the session. The researcher also vows to ensure the participants anonymity and privacy during the conduct of interview. The purpose of data analysis is to organize, provide structure to, and elicit meaning from research data (Polit and beck 2008). Data analysis will be ongoing in conjunction with data collection as Polit and Hunglar (1999) state as interviews are conducted, gathered data is synthesized, interpreted and communicated to give meaning to it. According to Burns and Grove (1999) qualitative data analysis occurs in three phases: description, analysis and interpretation. The researcher will transcribe the interviews verbatim and analysis of the transcripts will be carried out by the researcher while utilizing Giorgis quality data analyses.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 5:53 PM
Friday, August 16, 2019
INTRODUCTION The act of the National Revenue Authority came into being on 13 September 2002. The National Revenue Authority has a mandate to administer and collect all taxes, revenues and all penalties as stated in the NRA act. The purpose of the National Revenue Authority is to serve as a central body for the collection and assessment of national revenue.The implementation procedures and policies by the National Revenue Authority will ensure that revenues are collected efficiently by enforcing specified laws through the provision of robust administration. However, the capacity of the NRA was inadequate to efficiently perform its mandates and mobilize the revenue needed for the socio-economic development. Against this background, several donor organizations including Dfid opted to support the capacity building drive of the NRA.This study focuses on Dfid as one of the major donors supporting the NRA. I will attempt to analyze the impact of Dfid intervention in NRA, with specific focus on staff capacity and revenue mobilization. IMPACT OF DONOR FUNDING ON THE OPERATION OF NATIONAL RENVENUE AUTHORITY With Dfid funding in July 2009, to strengthen the performance of NRA through ensuring compliance with international trade agreements, improving business processes and developing staff capabilities.Crown Agents was contracted to provide technical assistance to the National Revenue Authority (NRA) in the Modernization Plan to target a benchmark wherein the institution (NRA) transforms into modern and effective medium through which to secure vital state revenues and to ensure that the newly implemented Goods and Services Tax (GST) is viable and robust wherein NRA will have in place effective compliance management procedures. This reform program has designed to deliver efficient and equitable customs and tax administration procedures to target international practice.Through its continuing support program to NRA, the Department for International Development (Dfid) has pled ge its assurance to achieve the overarching poverty alleviation and the reduction of dependency on foreign aid through the effective collection of revenue which has gradually increase domestic revenue to build the nation from 65% dependency on foreign donors in 2000 to 40% in 2010. The modernization program carried out by crown agent sponsored by Dfid encompassing the following areas: ?Integrated Revenue Management Program- This area focuses on Customs Modernization, Administrative Reform on Domestic Taxes, and the Implementation of Goods and Services Tax (GST). It also looks at the review of laws, procedures and structures to bring them in line with International best practice and to improve NRA's revenue collection base. This modernization component will involve capacity building in improving taxpayers audit and compliance management and assist in the establishment of a new Domestic Taxes Department that will merge GST and Direct Tax operations. Human Resource and Institutional De velopment Program- This modernization program is aimed at developing the human and institutional resource base of NRA by equipping it with modern performance management systems and procedures. Information systems should be enhanced under this program, change management strategies and improved monitoring and evaluation systems throughout the organization. ? Taxpayer Information and Educational Program- This modernization program is aimed at changing the taxpaying culture in Sierra Leone through better information to the public and by assisting individual taxpayers to understand their tax obligations. Consolidation of the Strategic Management Program- This modernization program focuses on the development of the NRA's Strategic Management capacity and institutional footprint with international procedures and policies. Having gone through this modernization program, Dfid contracted another agency known as United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in the provision of AS YCUDA to: ? Abolish the bureaucracy and administrative hard work for both the business community and NRA. ? Reduce the time used in processing and clearing of imported consignments under the previous manual system. Reduce revenue leakages and increases the collection of revenue ? Create transparency in the Customs administration of imports and exports departments in Sierra Leone. ? Assists the Customs Officers in providing consistent, fair and equitable treatment of all traders in applying the legal and regulatory framework ? Create equality and fairness among traders about response service and obligations. ANALYSIS ON THE IMPACT OF DONOR FUNDING ON THE OPERATION OF NATIONAL RENVENUE AUTHORITY Having looked at the impact of donor funding on the operations of National Revenue Authority (NRA).Their involvement in developmental activities in strengthening the performance of NRA through ensuring compliance with international trade agreements is far yet to be achieved base on the moderni zation plan, but having said this, progress is on the way which has created an impact on the operations of the institution. Analyzing further, as to what the donor funds have done in the operation of National Revenue Authority may be highlighted below. ? Enable senior management to focus on the Ã¢â¬Å"strategicÃ¢â¬ issues, which will inevitably arise within individual Program and the overall Plan itself, leaving tactical decisions to middle managers. Minimize leakage and other revenue losses by reducing discretion, curbing smuggling, and instituting systems and control. ? Increase revenue collection by improving on the efficiency of the current revenue administration and then expand the revenue base by tapping into new taxpayers, facilitate trade, take advantage of opportunities and deal with challenges in the revenue administration environment. ? Reduce existing arrears to 5% using persuasion where necessary or litigation ? Improved and enhanced tax administration by computeriza tion of operational and administration system. Develop and implement a robust monitoring and evaluation system ? Effectively monitor and control bonded warehouses to ensure compliance with laws and regulations, and verify inventories and internal controls on a quarterly basis. National Revenue Authority benefiting from donor partners has created an impetus on its operations. Therefore, having implemented all the modernization plans will help NRA to increase their revenue collection base by strengthening the capacity of staffs.The introduction of GST under the integrated management program as one of the modernization plan has help NRA to increase the Domestic Revenue which has reduced the dependency of foreign donors in our economy. The launching of ASYCUDA will reduce the bureaucratic and administrative work on both NRA and the community in reducing the time spent on processing and clearing of imported consignments under the previous manual system. ASYCUDA will reduce revenue leakag es and increase revenue collection and transparency in the Customs administration of imports and exports departments in Sierra Leone.CONCLUSION Donor funding has increasingly affected the operation of National Revenue Authority in diverse ways and as a result, to that, revenue generation has increase tremendously, which has reduced the dependency on foreign donors. Modernization plan is a funded program by Dfid but contracted Crown Agent in the implementation of the plans and they further contracted UNCTAD in the provision of ASYCUDA in reducing revenue leakages and the increases revenue base. It further reduced the bureaucratic and administrative work on both NRA and the community. References: Revenue and tax Policy Unit- MOFED Modernization Unit- NRA Website
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 9:34 PM
Heart of Darkness by Josef Conrad and Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe are two novels that are written to make a statement. Both are meant to stir the emotions of the reader, whether those emotions be anger, hope, frustration, joy, despair, or enlightenment. Both novels take place in the same location and same time period and involve the same groups of people. Both novels depict European imperialism in the African Congo in the 1800s. The obvious distinction between the two is that Heart of Darkness tells a tale from the European point of view while Things Fall Apart tells one from the Native African Tribe point of view. Both authors use extremely well developed characters to manifest and exhibit controversies and bring to light critical aspects of human nature and propensity. Both authors use conflict of various types to ascertain an overall theme. Although the novels use similar settings in the expression of their ideas, the underlying themes Conrad and Achebe choose to focus on are very different. Chiefly, the ultimate conflict in Heart of Darkness is one of Man vs. Himself, while the ultimate conflict in Things Fall Apart is one of Man vs. Man. To begin, both Conrad and Achebe wish to make statements on the negative consequences of Imperialism with their novels, but choose to emphasize completely unrelated and extremely different issues. In Heart of Darkness, the conflict has to do with the destructive consequences of the self-discovery and internal turmoil that goes with segregation from society in an untamed, ruthless, savage place such as the African Congo. Years of life in the jungle drove the brilliant Kurtz to near insanity: Ã¢â¬Å"the wilderness had found him out early, and had taken on him a terrible vengeance for the fantastic invasion. I think it had whispered things to him about himself which he did not know, things of which he had no conception till he took council with this great solitudeÃ¢â¬ (98). For Marlow, the dark and hollow core inside himself and all mankind is also exposed during his conquest into the unfamiliar land, and he too comes very close to being pushed into insanity by his realizations: Ã¢â¬Å"The most you can hope from it is some knowledge of yourself Ã¢â¬â that comes too late Ã¢â¬â a crop ofÃ inextinguishable regretsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Since I had peeped over the edge myself, I understand better the meaning of his stareÃ¢â¬ ¦ he had made that last stride, he had stepped over the edge, while I had been permitted to draw back my hesitating footÃ¢â¬ (119). Obviously, Conrad chose to focus his novel not on the conflicts that arise between people in societies that try to impose on each other, but rather how a new environment and point of view can lead to self-discovery and internal conflict within oneself. On the other hand, AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s obvious focus was on the falling apart of a culture that can occur with a more powerful cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s abrupt influence. He emphisizes throughout his novel many directly contrasting aspects of European society and the Ibo people, and the conflict this causes both between the two group and among the Ibo people themselves. As the wise Obierka observes, Ã¢â¬Å"he [the white man] has put a knife on the things that hold us [the Ibo people] together and we have fallen apartÃ¢â¬ . The use of the words he and we implies that the conflict exists between individuals; between whites and blacks, Europeans and natives, believers and non-believers, loyalists and traitors. More specifically, one can observe the trials of the two novelsÃ¢â¬â¢ main characters. Both main characters are tragic heroes and develop such dreadful internal conflict that in the end both are led to destruction, this conflict is rooted very differently for each of them. In Heart of Darkness, inner station manager Kurtz is found by Marlow in a state of essential insanity; an intellectual and economic genius turned delusional, raving, fanatical, and savage. As Marlow explains, KurtzÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"intelligence was perfectly clear and concentrated, it is true, upon himself with horrible intensity, yet clear; Ã¢â¬ ¦ his soul was mad. Being alone in the wilderness, it had looked within itself, and, by heavens! I tell you, it had gone madÃ¢â¬ (113). KurtzÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall was one that had developed from within himself. In Things Fall Apart, former tribal leader and respected warrior Okonkwo ends up losing the admiration of his people and eventually hanging himself. The self-loat hing hopelessness that led to his suicide came primarily from the discord that had developed between himself and the people of his tribe and the hostility of the whites.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 1:15 AM
Thursday, August 15, 2019
John Locke were both philosophers of the 17th century. Descartes was a rationalist in the way that he thought and wrote about. A rationalist used reasoning to gain knowledge. John Locke on the other hand, was an empiricist in the way he philosophized and taught. An empiricist used senses and experiences. These philosophers, being a rationalist and empiricist, were very different in the way they saw life and knowledge, but they had some similarities as well in the way that they thought. Being of two different groups of philosophers, the rationalists and empiricists, John Locke and Rene Descartes were very different in the beliefs they had; however, as different as they may be there were some similarities that were shared by both of these seventeenth century philosophers. First and most importantly, the biggest similarity that they shared was the fact that they were not skeptics. In other words, they both believed knowledge can be gained by humans. In addition, both of them separated the mind and the body to be two different things or concepts of a living being. For Descartes, mind was for thinking and reasoning and body was just matter or substance. For Locke mind was used for reflection or self-examination of oneself and the body was used for getting knowledge through its senses. For example, Locke says Ã¢â¬Å"it is past doubt that men have in their minds several ideas. Ã¢â¬ This is an example of how he says and believes the mind works in a human being and gives those ideas which are ultimately reflections. Descartes when he begins to write first states that he is going to doubt everything and then search for the truth. He first establishes himself. He writes Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦I could imagine I had no body, and that there was no world nor or any place that I occupied, but that I could not imagine for a moment that I did not exist. Ã¢â¬ This is where he starts to identify his self. He goes on to say the very well-known phrase Ã¢â¬Å"I think therefore I am. Ã¢â¬ This is the first truth he presents. He pretty much says that he exists. Then he goes on to identify other truths that he finds. He ultimately finds the biggest truth and says that there is a God that exists. He says the God is almighty, all knowing and perfect in every way. Upon stating the existence of God he says that everything we and do are true. In his writing, he states this when he says Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦that all those things which we conceived very clearly and very distinctly are true, is known to be true only because God existsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ and he goes on to say that this is true because everything we have comes from God and that he cannot be wrong. The reason as to why Descartes writes this is to get people to understand one thing. That people are a thinking substance and that because we are thinking we have the ability to reason. He says that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦we should never allow ourselves to be convinced except on the evidence of our reason. Ã¢â¬ This is how Descartes views self; it is a living substance that has the ability to reason and think and therefore it should. John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s first words on his paper Of Ideas in general, and their Original is Ã¢â¬Å"Idea is the object of thinking. Ã¢â¬ This statement is a perfect way to summarize what Locke believes. Locke in his writing writes about how all ideas then come from experience. He then goes on to describe that there are two ways of achieving experience. One of them is reflection or self-examination and the other is through your senses. Locke uses these two concepts of experience to ultimately describe what he feels self is. He understands self not to be a reasoning body, but a blank paper. In other words, people are not born knowing anything. They acquire knowledge through the experiences that they go through in life. For example, a person when born does not know that fire is hot, but if he tries to touch it and gets burned he will have learned that it is hot. This is one example of how Locke sees people molding themselves to be who they are. He says Ã¢â¬Å"Men are differently furnished with these, according to the different objects they converse with. Ã¢â¬ This essentially summarizes the meaning of the fire example. In addition, he writes Ã¢â¬Å"These, when we have taken a full survey of them, and their several modes, combinations, and relationsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He implies that our minds start to take these experiences and make them into ideas and then combine ideas to make bigger ideas and so on. All in all, John Locke regards the self to be born and be like a blank piece of paper and when grown he expects it to be a byproduct of its experiences. In fine, both of these writers had similarities even though they were part of two very different groups of philosophers. They had similarities such as, the fact that they were skeptics and that they separated the mind and body and these were the places where they found the most disagreement. In other words, they both believed knowledge was attainable but disagreed how and they both believed mind and body were different, but had different duties for them. Both these writers, even though they are very different, have made huge impacts in the field of philosophy and in life in general.
Posted by Keegan Tanner at 4:56 AM